In this section
Neonates in Intensive Care often require intubation and mechanical ventilation for a period of time. Elective intubation refers to the practice of insertion an endotracheal tube (ETT) for the purpose of providing mechanical ventilation in a non-emergency setting i.e. the neonate is not requiring resuscitation.
Nursing staff will be able to safely prepare a neonate for elective endotracheal intubation, assist a Medical Officer/Neonatal Nurse Practitioner during the procedure and correctly apply taping to secure both oral and nasal endotracheal tubes.
Investigations: biochemistry (blood gas results preceding the elective intubation and post intubation), Use of Pedicap® (exhaled CO2 detector) or End Tidal CO2 detector
Procedures: chest x-ray confirming ETT position
Education needs: Parents will require an appropriate explanation as to why their baby requires intubation and ongoing respiratory support. Parents can also be assured their baby’s comfort will be maintained and pain relieved by use of premedication agents. Discuss with the Doctor/Nurse Practitioner whether the parent(s) can remain with their baby throughout the procedure, and then with the family.
Nutrition: The stomach should have any contents aspirated prior to the procedure if the neonate has been fed recently to prevent regurgitation and aspiration. An IV will be required to be in-situ for the administration of the premedication agents, and can be used for the administration of 10% glucose if the neonate remains nil orally for a period of time.
Prepare all equipment before the procedure is started.
• Paediatric laryngoscope – check to ensure the light source is working and adequate for illumination
• Miller blade size 1 for full term infant
• Miller blade size 0 for preterm infant, or the blade specified by the Doctor who is to perform the procedure
• Endotracheal tube (ETT) internal diameter size appropriate for the neonate, and another a size smaller
Table 1 Recommended ETT size:
Tube size (internal diameter mm)
Gestational age (weeks)
Table 2 Recommended ETT length:
ETT Length (cm)
Oral length = weight (kg) + 6cmNasal length = 1.5 x weight (kg) + 6cm
Use of premedication prior to elective intubation to provide adequate analgesia and sedation should be used. Intubation has been identified as a painful procedure and associated with physiologic side-effects including bradycardia, desaturation, increased blood pressure and increased intracranial pressure which may be associated with intraventricular haemorrhage. Premedication administered to newborns for elective intubation has also demonstrated a decrease in the time and number of attempts needed to complete the intubation procedure and minimises the potential for intubation-related trauma. Patent IV access is required. An evidenced-based, optimal protocol for premedication prior to elective intubation in neonates is to administer a vagolytic, an analgesic and a muscle-relaxant medication.
In emergency situations, it may be appropriate to intubate without premedication.
Nursing staff on Butterfly ward have access to the online “Intubation and Resus Calculator” to assist with dose and administration of medications for elective intubation. Ensure the neonate’s weight is current when using dose calculators.
For full medication monographs with dosing information, refer to
Lexicomp Online resource (Pediatric and Neonatal Lexi-Drugs).
Opioid analgesics, which provide sedation throughout procedure, prevent systemic hypertension and reduce endocrine and endorphin responses to painful procedures.
Morphine has a longer onset of action than Fentanyl: peak analgesic effect is obtained after 15 minutes for morphine in comparison to in less than 3 minutes for Fentanyl. If morphine is utilised as a premedication prior to intubation, staff must wait for the onset of action to be optimal prior to administering other premedications and proceeding with elective intubation.
Morphine: Side effects include apnoea, hypotension and CNS depression.
Fentanyl: side effects include apnoea, hypotension, CNS depression and chest wall rigidity. The risk of chest wall rigidity can be reduced by administering Fentanyl IV over 1 minute and can be treated with muscle relaxants.
Increases the heart rate, blocks the vagal response that placement of a laryngoscope and ETT may induce and minimises oral secretions improving visibility of the vocal cords.
Onset of action: Expected within 2 minutes. Half-life: > 4 hours. Caution should be used if re-administering atropine within several hours of a previous dose.
Side effects: Tachycardia. In patients prone to SVT, atropine may precipitate arrhythmia and can block the effect of vagal manoeuvres.
Ensure IV that medication is to be administered through is patent, not extravasated. Administration of this medication precedes administration of muscle-relaxant. Flush with saline following Atropine dose to ensure dose enters circulation. Ensure medication actions are available prior to administering muscle-relaxant.
Prevent the increase in intracranial pressure reported during endotracheal intubation, and reduce duration of and number of intubation attempts and hence reduces hypoxia. Muscle relaxants used for intubation are are either Suxamethonium or Pancuronium.
Onset of action: 30- 60 seconds
Duration of action: 4-6 minutes
Side effects: Hypertension/hypotension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, hyperkalaemia, bronchospasm, and malignant hyperthermia (contraindicated in the presence of hyperkalaemia and family history of malignant hyperthermia).
Onset of action 1-3 minutes
Duration of action 40-60 minutes (if utilised as a premedication for elective intubation staff must be confident they can maintain the neonate’s airway and ventilation if intubation is unsuccessful). Effects can be reversed with Neostigmine administration.
Side effects: Mild histamine release, hypertension, tachycardia, bronchospasm, excessive salivation
Position the neonate for optimal intubation: supine on a firm surface, head in a neutral position.
Ensure thermoregulation is maintained e.g. neonate within incubator or nursed on a resuscitaire overhead heater.
Ensure oxygenation is appropriate for gestational age and condition of neonate (SpO2 between 91-95% unless cardiac patient then as per cardiology team). Ensure monitoring is continuous and audible for heart rate and SpO2 so that staff are alerted to a change in heart rate.
Checking and drawing up the medications, ensuring patent IV access is available. Administration of premedication agents should take into account their onset and duration of action. Thus the opioid is administered first, with sufficient time elapsing to ensure action is optimal, prior to administering Atropine, then the muscle-relaxant of choice.
Assist Medical staff or Neonatal Nurse Practitioner with intubation procedure.
If intubation procedure fails, maintain face mask ventilation with Neopuff in appropriate oxygen concentration and ensure adequate chest excursion and vital signs until staff are ready to repeat procedure.
To confirm ETT position in the trachea, the following is confirmed by medical staff or Neonatal Nurse Practitioner, at the time of intubation:
Assist with securing ETT by taping method suitable for route of insertion:
Illustration of Oral and Nasal ETT strapping
Common principles to be considered regardless of ETT location and taping method include the use of Duoderm ® as a skin protective layer, and that if string is used to assist marking ETT insertion depth, the knot needs to be tied so that it lies on the underside of the ETT and does not press into the upper lip or upper aspect of the nostril and cause pressure damage.
Ensure a naso-gastric or oro-gastric tube is re-inserted and connected to free drainage post-procedure to ensure the stomach is drained of any air inadvertently instilled.
Within EMR, ensure:
Potential complications/complications of elective intubation include:
Education of parents including reason for intubation, requirement for respiratory support, safety aspects they need to be mindful of when interacting with their baby, how they can still interact with and assist with their baby’s care.
Neonatal ehandbook topic “Intubation for neonates”
http://www.nets.org.au/img.ashx?f=f&p=clinical_guidelines/Neonatal+Intubation+Guidelines.pdf a useful reference with diagrams/pictures clearly outlining anatomical structures.
The evidence table for this guideline can be found
Please remember to read the
The development of this nursing guideline was coordinated by Jacquie Whitelaw, Nurse Educator, Butterfly Ward, and approved by the Nursing Clinical Effectiveness Committee. First published April 2017.