Clinical Guidelines (Nursing)

Surfactant Administration in the NICU

  • Introduction

    Aim

    Definition of Terms

    Assessment

    Dosing

    Management

    Special Considerations

    Companion Documents

    Links 

    Evidence Table

    References 

    Introduction

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins that creates a cohesive surface layer over the alveoli which reduces surface tension and maintains alveolar stability therefore preventing atelectasis. Surfactant deficiency is a recognized cause of respiratory distress syndrome in the preterm neonate. Secondary surfactant deficiency also contributes to acute respiratory morbidity in late-preterm and term neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome, pulmonary haemorrhage, and pneumonia/sepsis. Many clinical trials have demonstrated that surfactant replacement therapy is a safe, effective and beneficial treatment as it significantly reduces respiratory morbidity (air leaks, pulmonary interstitial emphysema), ventilatory requirements and mortality in these neonates. 

    Aim

    • The aim of this guideline is to outline the principles of surfactant replacement therapy and the safe administration of surfactant in neonates in the Butterfly ward - Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU)

    Definition of Terms 

    • Neonate – infant less than 28 days old
    • Surfactant - complex and highly surface active material composed of lipids and proteins which is found in the fluid lining the alveolar surface of the lungs, which serves to reduce alveolar surface tension
    • RDS – respiratory distress syndrome
    • FiO2 - fraction of inspired oxygen

    Assessment

    Clinical indications

    Surfactant replacement therapy should be considered in:

    • neonates with clinical and radiographic evidence of RDS
    • neonates at risk of developing RDS (e.g. <32 weeks or low birth weight <1300g)
    • neonates who are intubated, regardless of gestation, and requiring FiO2 >40%

    Surfactant replacement therapy may be considered in:

    • Severe meconium aspiration syndrome with severe respiratory failure – may improve oxygenation and reduce the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
    • Pulmonary haemorrhage with clinical deterioration
    • Severe respiratory syncytial virus-induced respiratory failure - may improve gas exchange and respiratory mechanics and shorten the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation 

    Dosing

    Management

    Administration

    • Prepare equipment/supplies:
      • Continuous cardiovascular monitoring equipment 
      • Transcutaneous CO2 monitor (TCM) or end tidal CO2 monitor (etCO2) if appropriate 
      • Surfactant 
      • Size 5 Fr feeding tube 
      • 3ml or 5ml syringe (dose dependent) 
      • Large gauge needle (18g, 19g or 20g)
      • Alcohol swab 70% 
      • Sterile towel or drape 
      • Tape measure 
      • Sterile scissors 
      • Emergency equipment: Neopuff and mask, suction
    • Surfactant administration is a two-person procedure. It should be performed by at least one medical practitioner or a neonatal nurse practitioner (NNP) who administers the surfactant and one registered nurse as the assistant
    • Record baseline observations: heart rate, respiration rate, oxygen saturation, TCO2/etCO2, plus a blood gas if required
    • Ensure and confirm correct position of the endotracheal tube (ETT) via chest x-ray prior to giving surfactant. Auscultation of the chest for equal bilateral air entry confirmed by a NICU fellow or consultant is an additional method of confirming ETT placement.
    • If neonate is not intubated (eg. a premature neonate on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)), an in-out intubation will be performed to administer the surfactant (INSURE technique – Intubation, Surfactant then Extubation). Refer to the guideline on elective intubation. . 
    • Check and prepare emergency equipment at bedside (e.g. Neopuff, suction). If performing intubation, also prepare intubation drugs, laryngoscope with appropriate blade size, appropriate size ETT, and Pedicap/CO2 detector.
    • Ensure patency of ETT. Suction ETT as necessary prior to administration.
    • Slowly warm the vial of surfactant to room temperature before administration
    • Administering medical practitioner performs hand hygiene and dons sterile gloves.
    • Using surgical aseptic technique, cut a sterile 5 fg feeding tube to the length so that the tip lies 1 cm above the end of the endotracheal tube. This ensures that the surfactant is administered intra-tracheal. Curosurf should not be instilled into a main stem bronchus.
    • Slowly withdraw a little over the required dose into a 3 or 5 mL plastic syringe using a large-gauge needle. Attach the pre-cut 5 Fr catheter to the syringe, prime or fill the catheter with surfactant to the end. Discard excess surfactant through the catheter so that only the dose to be given remains in the syringe.
    • Ensure bed is flat. Place the neonate in supine position. There is no evidence to support the practice of placing the neonate in multiple positions during administration.
    • Assistant disconnects the ETT from the ventilator.
    • Medical practitioner or NNP to administer the surfactant via the pre-cut 5 Fr catheter in a single bolus dose as quickly as the neonate tolerates. The total dose is usually given less than a minute.
    • Surfactant can occlude the ETT and it may be necessary to cease administration until the tube is cleared and chest wall movement resumes
    • Reconnect ETT to ventilator as soon as possible. If neonate was on CPAP, positive pressure ventilation is given via the Neopuff. Holding the ETT upright may facilitate surfactant drainage and minimize reflux up the ventilator circuit 
    • Ventilator support or inspired oxygen may need to be temporarily increased.
    • Medical practitioner/NNP to remain at bedside until the neonate is stable.

    Post-administration 

    • Marked improvements may occur within minutes of administration. Ventilation settings will need to be continually assessed and adjusted post administration to avoid hyperoxygenation or exposure to excessive peak inspiratory pressures. 
    • Extubation may be considered for some neonates (INSURE technique – Intubation, Surfactant then Extubation) particularly the premature neonates who were on CPAP prior to administration, and responded well to the surfactant administration. 
    • At high ventilator rates (> 40) regurgitation of surfactant may occur in the expiratory circuit, this can be remedied by holding the ETT upright for a few minutes post administration and/or by reducing the ventilator rate.
    • Monitor neonate’s vital signs closely every 10 minutes for 30 minutes then resume normal frequency of monitoring. A repeat blood gas may be necessary 30-60 minutes post administration.
    • Do not suction airways for 1 hour after surfactant instillation unless signs of significant airway obstruction occur
    • Note and report changes in non-pulmonary haemodynamics that may indicate significant changes - particularly in the very premature and/or unwell patient 

    Potential complications and management 

    • During administration, transient bradycardia, oxygen desaturation and ETT blockage can occur – temporarily stop surfactant administration, provide ventilation or oxygen as necessary, and resume administration after patient is stable
    • ETT obstruction – if suspected, observe saturations and chest wall movement. Call for medical assistance if obstruction is not alleviated and ventilation is impaired
    • Pneumothorax – can occur due to sudden changes in pulmonary compliance if ventilation settings are not appropriately changed
    • Pulmonary haemorrhage – notify medical officer immediately. Ensure the PEEP remains above 5cm H2O

    Special considerations

    • Storage and handling: Surfactant is stored in a refrigerator at +2 to +8oC. Surfactant vial should be slowly warmed to room temperature and gently turned upside down in order to obtain a uniform suspension. Do not shake the vial. Use the appropriate sized vial for the prescribed volume and discard unused portion immediately after use.  Unopened, unused vials of surfactant suspension that have warmed to room temperature can be returned to refrigerated storage within 24 hours for future use. Do not warm to room temperature and return to refrigerated storage more than once. Protect from light.
    • Infection control: Ensure hand hygiene is performed, surgical aseptic technique is used and equipment is kept sterile/clean to minimize risk of infection 

    Companion documents

    Links

    Evidence table

    The evidence table for this guideline can be viewed here.

    References

    1. Polin, R. A., & Carlo, W. A. (2014). Surfactant replacement therapy for preterm and term neonates with respiratory distress. Pediatrics, (1), 156.
    2. Chiesi Farmaceutici, S.p.A.. (2014). Curosurf (poractant alfa) intratracheal suspension, Prescribing Information.
    3. Stevens, T.P., Blennow, M., Myers, E.H., Soll, R. (2007). Early surfactant administration with brief ventilation vs. selective surfactant and continued mechanical ventilation for preterm infants with or at risk for respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003063. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003063.pub3.
    4. El Shahed AI, Dargaville PA, Ohlsson A, Soll R. Surfactant for meconium aspiration syndrome in term and late preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD002054. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002054.pub3
    5. Ardell S, Pfister RH, Soll R. Animal derived surfactant extract versus protein free synthetic surfactant for the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD000144. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000144.pub3
    6. Soll R, Özek E. Multiple versus single doses of exogenous surfactant for the prevention or treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD000141. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000141.pub2
    7. Finer, N. N. (2004). Surfactant use for neonatal lung injury: beyond respiratory distress syndrome. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 5 Suppl AS289-S297.


    Please remember to read the disclaimer.


    The development of this nursing guideline was coordinated by Sheila Daco, RN, Butterfly Ward, and approved by the Nursing Clinical Effectiveness Committee. Updated Janurary 2018.