International Youth Development Study

News findings

  • Project Progress



    Newsletter 2012 (pdf)

    Newsletter 2010 (pdf)

    Australian  Research Update 2009 (pdf)

    Australian Research Update 2008 (pdf)

    Australian Research Update 2007 (pdf)

    Australian Family Newsletter 2006 (pdf)

    U.S. Family Newsletter 2003 (pdf)

    Project Progress


    Small-scale pilot studies conducted in Victoria and Washington. 

    • Students recruited and surveyed in Victoria and Washington.
    • A parent or guardian of each student completed a telephone interview.
    • A school administrator at each school completed a School Administrator Survey. 
    • Students completed the 2nd annual student survey at school.
    • School administrators at schools attended by students to completed a mail Survey. 
    • Students completed the 3rd annual student survey at school.
    • School administrators at schools attended by students completed a mail Survey.
     2005The project took a break from surveying students and schools. 

    The Victorian arm of the project received funding to survey the youngest group of Victorian students for the next 2 years: 2006 and 2007. 


    The Victorian arm of the project is continuing to survey the youngest group of participants in the study. Most of these young people are still attending school and are now in year 10.


    The Victorian arm of the project received further funding to continue surveying the youngest group of Victorian students for another 2 years: 2008 and again in 2010. 

    • The Victorian arm of the project received funding to locate and contact all past Victorian participants from the middle and oldest groups.
    • These past participants will be asked to complete a short questionnaire about what they have been doing since completing school. 

    Participants were surveyed using an online survey in 2010 and 2012, and will be invited to do so again in 2014. 


     * Most recent publications included at end of list

    1.  Toumbourou, J. W., Evans-Whipp, T., Clements, J., McMorris, B. J., Mathers, M. and Catalano, R. F. (2004). Ethical Guidelines for the compensation of research participants should be clarified: Reflections from cross-national research. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 28: 584-585.
    2. Patton, G., McMorris, B.J., Toumbourou, J.W., Hemphill, S.A., Donath, S. and Catalano, R.F. (2004). Puberty and the onset of substance use and abuse. Pediatrics 114(3): 300-306.
    3. McMorris, B. J., Clements, J., Evans-Whipp, T., Gangnes, D., Bond, L., Toumbourou, J. W. and Catalano, R. F. (2004). A comparison of methods to obtain active parental consent for an international student survey. Evaluation Review 28:64-83.
    4. Hemphill, S.A., Toumbourou, J.W., Catalano, R.F. and Mathers, M. (2004). Levels and family correlates of positive youth development: A cross-national comparison. Family Matters 68: 28-35.
    5. Evans-Whipp, T., Beyers, J. M., Lloyd, S., LaFazia, A. N., Toumbourou, J. W., Arthur, M. W. & Catalano, R. F., 2004. A review of school drug policies and their impact on youth substance use. Health Promotion International: 19: 227-234.
    6. Beyers, J. M., Toumbourou, J. W., Catalano, R. F., Arthur, M. W. and Hawkins, J. D. (2004) A cross-national comparison of risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use. Journal of Adolescent Health: 35(1): 3-16.
    7. Toumbourou, J.W. and Catalano, R.F. (2005). Predicting developmentally harmful substance use. In T. Stockwell, P. Gruenewald, J.W. Toumbourou, & W. Loxley (Eds.), Preventing harmful substance use: The evidence base for policy and practice (pp: 53-66). London, Wiley
    8. Bond, L., Toumbourou, J. W., Thomas, L., Catalano, R. F. and Patton, G. (2005) Individual, family, school, and community risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms in adolescents.  Prevention Science 6: 73-88.
    9. Beyers, J. M., Evans-Whipp, T., Mathers, M., Catalano, R. F. and Toumbourou, J. W. (2005). An international comparison of the school drug policy environments in Washington State, U.S. and Victoria, Australia. Journal of School Health: 75: 134-140.
    10. Mathers, M., Toumbourou, J.W., Catalano. R.F., Williams, J. and Patton, G.C. (2006) Consequences of youth tobacco use: a review of prospective behavioural studies,Addiction, 101(7), 948-958.
    11. Hemphill, S.A., Toumbourou, J.W., Herrenkohl, T.I., McMorris, B.J. and Catalano. R.F. (2006) The Effect of School Suspensions and Arrests on Subsequent Adolescent Antisocial Behavior in Australia and the United States.Journal of Adolescent Health, 39(5), 623-784
    12. Bond, L., Clements, J., Betalli, N., Evans-Whipp, T., McMorris, B.J., Patton, G.C., Toumbourou, J.W. and Catalano, R.F. (2006) A comparison of self-reported puberty using the Pubertal Development Scale and the Sexual Maturation Scale in a school-based epidemiologic survey.Journal of Adolescence,29(5): 709-720. IF 0.933.
    13. Patton, G.C., Hemphill, S.A., Beyers, J.M., Bond, L., Toumbourou, J.W., McMorris, B.J. and Catalano, R.F. (2007) Pubertal stage and deliberate self-harm in adolescence.Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 508-514.
    14. McMorris, B.J., Hemphill, S.A., Toumbourou, J.W., Catalano, R.F. and Patton, G.C. (2007) Prevalence of substance use and delinquent behavior in adolescents from Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.Health Education and Behavior,34, 634-650.
    15. Herrenkohl, T.I., McMorris, B.J., Catalano, R.F., Abbott, R.D., Hemphill, S.A. and Toumbourou, J.W. (2007) Risk factors for violence and relational aggression in adolescence.Journal of Interpersonal Violence,22, 386-405.
    16. Hemphill, S.A., McMorris, B.J., Toumbourou, J.W., Herrenkohl, T.I., Catalano, R.F. and Mathers, M. (2007) Rates of student-reported antisocial behaviour, school suspensions and arrests in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.Journal of School Health,77, 303-311.
    17. Hemphill, S.A., Herrenkohl, T.I., LaFazia, A.N., McMorris, B.J., Toumbourou, J.W., Arthur, M.W., Catalano, R.F., Hawkins, J.D. and Bond, L. (2007) Comparison of the structure of adolescent problem behavior in the United States and Australia.Crime and Delinquency, 53(2), 303-321.
    18. Evans-Whipp,T., Bond, L., Toumbourou, J.W. and Catalano,  R.(2007) School, Parent and Student Perspectives of School Drug Policies.Journal of School Health,77(3) 138-146.
    19. Patton, G. C., Olsson, C., Bond, L., Toumbourou, J. W., Carlin, J. B., Hemphill, S. A. & Catalano, R.F. (2008) Predicting female depression across puberty: A two-nation longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 1424-1432.
    20. Herrenkohl, T. I., Catalano, R. F., Hemphill, S. A., & Toumbourou, J. W. (2009) Longitudinal examination of physical and relational aggression as precursors to later problem behaviors in adolescents. Violence and Victims, 24, 3-19.
    21. Toumbourou, J.W., Hemphill, S.A., McMorris, B.J., Catalano, R.F. & Patton, G.C. (2009) Alcohol use and related harms in school students in the USA and Australia. Health Promotion International, 24(4): 373-382.
    22. Hemphill, S.A., Smith, R., Herrenkohl,T.I., Catalano, R.F., McMorris, B.J., Toumbourou, J.W., Romaniuk, H. (2009) Modifiable determinants of youth violence in Australia and the United States: A longitudinal study. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 42(3): 289-309.
    23. Tracy J. Evans-Whipp, Lyndal Bond, Obioha C. Ukoumunne, John W. Toumbourou and Richard F. Catalano (2010 The Impact of School Tobacco Policies on Student Smoking in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7(3): 698-710.
    24. Hemphill S.A., Kotevski A., Herrenkohl T.I., Toumbourou J.W., Carlin J.B., Catalano R.F. and Patton G.C. (2010) Pubertal stage and the prevalence of violence and social/relational aggression. Paediatrics published online Jul 12, 2010: DOI:10.1542/peds.2009-0574.
    25. Coomber, K., Toumbourou, J.W., Miller, P., Staiger, P., Hemphill, S., Catalano, R.F. (2011) Rural adolescent alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use: A comparison of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, the United States of America. The Journal of Rural Health. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-0361.2010.00360.x . pp 1-7.
    26. Hemphill, S.A., Kotevski, A., Herrenkohl, T.I., Bond, L., Kim, M.J., Toumbourou, J.W., Catalano, R.F. (2011) Longitudinal consequences of adolescent bullying perpetration and victimisation: A study of students in Victoria, Australia.   Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health.21(2): 107-16. DOI: 10.1002/cbm.802
    27. McMorris, B. J., Catalano, R. F., Kim, M. J., Toumbourou, J. W., & Hemphill, S. A. (May 2011). Influence of Family Factors and Supervised Alcohol Use on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Harms: Similarities Between Youth in Different Alcohol Policy Contexts. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72(3), 418-42.
    28. Hemphill, S.A.. Heerde, J.A., Herrenkohl, T.I., Toumbourou, J.W. & Catalano, R.F. (online 2011). The impact of school suspensions on student tobacco use: A longitudinal study in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.  Health, Education & Behavior.    DOI: 10.1177/1090198111406724
    29. Hemphill, S.A., Heerde, J.A., Herrenkohl, T.I., Patton, G.C. Toumbourou, J.W., Catalano, R.F. (online 2011).  Risk and protective factors for adolescent substance use in Washington State, the United States and Victoria, Australia: A longitudinal study.  Journal of Adolescent Health.    DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.12.017
    30. Kelly, A. B., O'Flaherty, M., Toumbourou, J. W., Connor, J. P., Hemphill, S., & Catalano, R. F. Gender differences in the impact of families on alcohol use: A lagged longitudinal study of pre-teens.  Addiction, 106, 1427-1436.
    31. McKenzie D.P., Toumbourou J.W., Forbes A.B., Mackinnon A.J., McMorris B.J., Catalano R.F. & Patton G.C. (online 2011). Predicting future depression in adolescents using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire: a two-nation study.    Journal of Affective Disorders, 134(1-3): 151-159. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2011.05.022
    32. Mason, W. Alex, Toumbourou, John W., Herrenkohl, Todd I., Hemphill, Sheryl A., Catalano, Richard F., Patton, George C. (online 2011). Early-age alcohol use and later alcohol problems in adolescents: Individual and peer mediators in a bi-national study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 25(4): 625-634.
    33. Hemphil, S.A. Heerde, J.A., Herrenkohl, T.I., Toumbourou, J.W. & Catalano, R.F. (2012). The impact of school suspensions on student tobacco use: A longitudinal study in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.  Health, Education & Behavior. 39(1): 45-56.   DOI: 10.1177/1090198111406724
    34. Hemphill S.A. Kotevski, A., Tollit, M., Smith, R., Herrenkohl, T.I., Toumbourou, J.W. and Catalano, R.C. (2012)   Longitudinal Predictors of Cyber and Traditional Bullying Perpetration in Australian Secondary School Students.  Journal of Adolescent Health. 51(1): 59-65. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2011.11.019
    35. Herrenkohl, T.I., Hemphill, S.A., Mason, W.A., Toumbourou, J.W., & Catalano, R.F. (2012).  Predictors and responses to the growth in physical violence during adolescence: A comparison of students in Washington State and Victoria, Australia.     American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82(1): 41-49.
    36. Choi, Y., He, M., Herrenkohl, T.I., Catalano, R.F., & Toumbourou, J.T. (2012). Multiple identifications and risks: Examination of peer factors across multiracial and single-race youth.  Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(7): 847-62.
    37. Hemphill, S.A., Herrenkohl, T.I., Plenty, S.M., Toumbourou, J.W., Catalano, R.F. & McMorris, B.J. (2012)    Pathways from school suspension to adolescent nonviolent antisocial behaviour in students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.  Journal of Community Psychology, 40(3): 301-318.
    38. Evans-Whipp, T.J., Plenty, S.M., Toumbourou, J.W., Olsson, C., Rowland, B. & Hemphill, S.A. (2013).  Adolescent exposure to drink driving as a predictor of young adults' drink driving.  Accident Analysis and Prevention. 51:185-191.
    39. Scholes-Balog, K.E., Hemphill, S.A., Kremer, P. & Toumbourou, J.W. (online 2013). A longitudinal study of the reciprocal effects of alcohol use and interpersonal violence among Australian young people. Journal of Youth & Adolescence. DOI 10.1007/s10964-013-9910-z
    40. Agius, P., Taft, A., Hemphill, S.A., Toumbourou, J.W. & McMorris, B. (2013). Excessive alcohol use and its association with risky sexual behaviour: a cross-sectional analysis of data from Victorian secondary school students.   Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 37(1): 76-82.
    41. Scholes-Balog, K.E., Hemphill, S.A., Patton, G. & Toumbourou, J.W. (2013).  Cannabis use and related harms in the transition to young adulthood: A longitudinal study of Australian secondary school students.  Journal of Adolescence 36 (2013), 519-527.
    42. Evans-Whipp, T.J., Plenty, S.M., Catalano, R.F., Herrenkohl, T.I. & Toumbourou, J.W. (online 2013). The impact of school alcohol policy on student drinking.   Health Education Research. doi:10.1093/her/cyt068
    43.  Hemphill, S.A., Heerde, J.A., Scholes-Balog, K.E., Smith, R., Herrenkohl, T.I., Toumbourou, J.W. & Catalano, R.C. (online 2013) Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.  Journal of Early Adolescence 2014, Vol. 34(3) 360 –386.  DOI: 10.1177/0272431613491830
    44. Hemphill, S. A., Kotevski, A., Herrenkohl, T. I., Smith, R., Toumbourou, J. W., & Catalano, R. F. (2013). Does school suspension affect subsequent youth nonviolent antisocial behavior? A longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States. Australian Journal of Psychology, 65(4), 236-249. doi 10.1111/ajpy.12026 
    45. Scholes-Balog, K.E., Hemphill, S.A., Reid, S.C., Patton, G.C. & Toumbourou, J.W. (2013).   Predicting early initiation of alcohol use: A prospective study of Australian children.   Substance Use & Misuse, 48, 343-352.
    46. Chan, G.C.K, Kelly, A.B., Toumbourou, J.W., Hemphill, S.A., McD. Young, R., Haynes, M.S. & Catalano, R.F. (2013).  Predicting steep escalations in alcohol use over the teenage years: Age-related variations in key social influences.  Addiction, 108(11):1924-1932. doi: 10.1111/add.12295 
    47. Habib, C., Toumbourou, J. W., McRitchie, M., Williams, J., Kremer, P., McKenzie, D., & Catalano, R. F. (2013). Prevalence and community variation in harmful levels of family conflict witnessed by children: Implications for prevention. Prevention Science, Advance online publication. doi: 10.1007/s11121-11013-10416-11124.
    48. Hemphill, S.A., Tollit, M., & Herrenkohl, T.I. (online 2013). Protective factors against the impact of school bullying perpetration and victimisation on young adult internalising and externalising problems.   Journal of School Violence. 13:1, 125-145, DOI:10.1080/15388220.2013.844072.
    49. Toumbourou, J.W, Evans-Whipp, T., Smith, R., Hemphill, S. & Herrenkohl, T.  (online 2013). Adolescent Predictors and Environmental Correlates of Young Adult Alcohol Use Problems.  Addiction, Advance online publication. doi:10.1111/add.12401.
    50. Sheryl A. Hemphill; Stephanie Plenty; Todd Herrenkohl; John W. Toumbourou; Richard F. Catalano. (online 2013) Student and school factors influencing school suspension: A multilevel, longitudinal analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.  Children and Youth Services Review 36C, pp. 187-194. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.11.022
    51. Scholes-Balog, K.E., Hemphill, S.A., Dowling, N.A., & Toumbourou, J.W. (2014). A prospective study of adolescent risk and protective factors for problem gambling among young adults. Journal of Adolescence, 37, 2, 215-224.
    52. Kelly, A. B., Evans‐Whipp, T. J., Smith, R., Chan, G. C., Toumbourou, J. W., Patton, G. C., ... & Catalano, R. F. (2015). A longitudinal study of the association of adolescent polydrug use, alcohol use and high school non‐completion. Addiction110(4), 627-635.
    53. Prendergast, L. E., Toumbourou, J. W., McMorris, B. J., & Catalano, R. F. (2019). Outcomes of early adolescent sexual behavior in Australia: Longitudinal findings in young adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 64, 516-522.
    54. Rowland, B., Jonkman, H., Steketee, M., Solomon, R., Solomon, S., Toumbourou, J.W. (2019) A Cross-national comparison of the development of adolescent problem behavior: a 1-year longitudinal study in India, the Netherlands, USA and Australia. Prevention Science. 
    55. Enstad, F., Evans-Whipp, T., Kjeldsen, A., Toumbourou, J.W., von Soest, T. (2019) Predicting hazardous drinking in late adolescence/young adulthood from early and excessive adolescent drinking - a longitudinal cross-national study of Norwegian and Australian adolescents, BMC Public Health, 19 (790), 1-12.
    56. Heerde, J.A., Bailey, J.A., Toumbourou, J.W., Catalano, R.F. (2019). Longitudinal associations between the adolescent family environment and young adult substance use in Australia and the United States. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 10:821.

    57. Epstein, M., Bailey, J.A., Catalano, R.F., Furlong, M., & Toumbourou, J.W. (2019). Does adolescent alcohol harm minimization policy exposure reduce young adult alcohol problems? A longitudinal comparison of Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Journal of Adolescent Health. 66, 713-718.
    58. Parks, M., Solomon, R.J., Solomon, S., Rowland, B.C., Hemphill, S.A., Patton, G.C., Toumbourou, J.W. (2020) Delinquency, school context, and risk factors in India, Australia, and the United States: Implications for prevention. Journal of Research on Adolescence. 30(S1), 143-157. 
    59. Scholes -Balog, K.E., Hemphill, S.A., Heerde, J.A., Toumbourou, J.W., Patton, G.C. (2020) Childhood social environmental and behavioural predictors of early adolescent onset cannabis use. Drug and Alcohol Review. 39(4) 384-393.
    60. Heerde, J.A., Bailey, J.A., Toumbourou, J.W., Rowland, B., Catalano, R.F. (2020) Prevalence of homelessness and co-occurring problems: A comparison of young adults in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States. Children and Youth Services Review. 109, 104692.
    61. Stokes, M.A., Hemphill, S., McGillivray, J., Evans‐Whipp, T., Satyen, L & Toumbourou, J.W. (2020). Self-reported injury in Australian young adults: Demographic and lifestyle predictors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 44(2), 106-110.  .
    62. Heerde, J. A., Bailey, J. A., Toumbourou, J. W., Rowland, B., & Catalano, R. F. (2020). Longitudinal associations between early-mid adolescent risk and protective factors and young adult homelessness in Australia and the United States. Prevention Science, 21(4), 557-567.