Safety: Pedestrian safety

  • Regularly walking short distances with young children (e.g. to the park, to child care or school) provides opportunity to include physical activity and encourages a healthy lifestyle. It is also a great way to teach and develop the road safety skills children need to become safe and independent road users. 

    Each child develops the skills and experience to be safe around traffic at a different age – usually, this is around nine to 13 years old. It can be hard to tell when your child is ready for independent travel, but there are some important skills (e.g. judging the speed and distance of oncoming traffic) they need to have before they can walk, ride or scoot without an adult.

    You play a key role in teaching your children about road safety and should always set a positive example.

    How to be road safe

    Regardless of your child’s age or experience, to cross a road safely they should be taught to:

    • Stop at the kerb, not on the road.
    • Look in all directions for approaching traffic.
    • Listen for anything coming.
    • Think about if it is safe to cross the road.

    Whenever possible, use a marked crossing and teach your child to only cross with the green man – do not start crossing if lights have changed to blinking red.

    Children should never cross the street from between parked cars – they can’t see oncoming traffic, and a child’s low height means drivers can’t see them.

    Generally, children under nine years should always cross the street with an adult. Hold your child’s hand when walking near traffic (e.g. on the street, in car parks and near public transport).

    Independent travel

    Observe your child’s road-crossing behaviour to determine whether they are ready to be an independent pedestrian. Look at how they go about choosing a safe place to cross, how thoroughly they scan for traffic and how directly they cross the road. Ensure your child:

    • looks thoroughly for traffic, no matter how quiet the road may seem
    • uses controlled crossings whenever possible, even if this means walking further
    • knows the safest route to take to and from school
    • wears or carries something bright so they can be easily seen, especially if they will be travelling in the dark.

    Travelling to and from school

    Regularly walking to school with your child will help them develop the skills they need to begin to travel to school on their own. Walking regularly with your child can also help them become familiar with their local area and learn the safest and most direct route to get home.

    • Children learn by example – model good road safety and always cross at crossings.
    • Talk through pedestrian safety when walking with your child – describing your thought process will help your child learn when and why it is safe to cross a road.
    • Avoid distractions – teach children to put away phones and other devices when walking near roads and traffic.
    • When your child is ready to travel on their own, make a plan with them about possible strategies they can use in certain situations if something goes wrong (e.g. they get lost, they or a sibling gets injured, a stranger approaches them).

    Benefits of walking to school

    Research shows families drive their children to school because they feel it is a safe form of transport, that walking takes too long, and that driving is convenient and fits in best with the family schedule. 

    Walking to school has many benefits, and you should consider these when planning your school pick-ups and drop offs. Benefits include:

    • knowledge and experience of road travel and pedestrian safety
    • increased confidence and self-esteem
    • ability to get around the neighbourhood independently (e.g. to a friend’s place)
    • development of problem-solving skills
    • time to connect with your child
    • reducing environmental footprint (compared with driving to school)
    • saving money (cost of petrol or public transport).

    Even if you live far away from the school, walking can be combined with public transport, or a drive only part of the way.

    National guidelines suggest primary-school-aged children need 60 minutes of moderate physical activity every day (e.g. brisk walking or cycling). Walking to school keeps children active and encourages a healthy lifestyle, which can reduce their risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Driveway safety

    When walking along any street, it’s important to be aware of cars reversing or driving in or out of driveways. Teach your child to watch and listen for cars coming in and out of driveways, and keep children close to you even when they are on scooters and bikes.

    Commonly, children are involved in driveway incidents at their own homes, with children under six years especially at risk:

    • Young children can be difficult to see from inside a car, especially if they are right behind it.
    • Children can move quickly and can behave unpredictably.
    • Visitors coming and going increases the risk of a driveway run-over.

    Don’t rely on reversing cameras or parking sensors – some cars have a very large ‘blind spot’ in the rearward vision and a child may not be noticed until it is too late to stop.

    To reduce the incidence of driveway run overs:

    • Supervise: Watch children at all times around driveways. Ensure children are restrained in a car or holding an adult’s hand when vehicles are coming in and out of driveways.
    • Separate: Driveways should never be a play area. Separate the play areas from the driveway (e.g. play in the backyard rather than in the front yard). Barriers can be used to prevent children from wandering onto driveways.
    • See: Be aware of your car’s blind spot. Parking sensors and reversing cameras should not replace active supervision – a child can be difficult to see behind a vehicle. Walk around your vehicle before getting in if you know children have been near the vehicle.

    When reversing out of a driveway, make sure that you have checked for children on the footpath before starting your car, and beep your horn before you reach the footpath to warn any pedestrians (and children on scooters or bikes) that you are coming.

    Key points to remember

    • Children develop the skills and experience to be safe around traffic at different ages, but usually around nine to 13 years old.
    • Teach children to Stop, Look, Listen, Think when crossing roads.
    • Walking to school has many benefits and once children are ready, they should be encouraged to travel to school independently.
    • Driveways are dangerous and should be treated with the same caution as roads.

    For more information

    Common questions our doctors are asked

    When can I let my child walk to and from school on their own?

    Every child is different, and the risks involved in different journeys to school also vary. Keep in mind that children under nine years old should always cross the street with an adult. Before deciding if your child is ready to walk to school independently, observe their behaviour around roads and don’t allow them to walk to and from school without an adult until you are confident they are ready.

    How can I find out what cars are safest in relation to children and visibility when reversing?

    While many newer model cars have rear vision cameras, they differ in effectiveness, and some popular cars even have a very large blind spot. There are a few websites that review the performance of car reversing visibilities, such as IAG’s Reversing Visibility Index.

    For older model cars, you can purchase a reversing camera kit. For guidance on what to consider when buying one of these kits, have a look at the Choice Car reversing camera buying guide.

    Remember, it is dangerous to rely on reversing cameras to tell you where children are, so always ‘supervise, separate and see’ when reversing out of driveways. 

    Developed by The Royal Children's Hospital Community Information. We acknowledge the input of RCH consumers and carers.

    Reviewed January 2019.

    This information is awaiting routine review. Please always seek the most recent advice from a registered and practising clinician.

    Kids Health Info is supported by The Royal Children’s Hospital Foundation. To donate, visit


This information is intended to support, not replace, discussion with your doctor or healthcare professionals. The authors of these consumer health information handouts have made a considerable effort to ensure the information is accurate, up to date and easy to understand. The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne accepts no responsibility for any inaccuracies, information perceived as misleading, or the success of any treatment regimen detailed in these handouts. Information contained in the handouts is updated regularly and therefore you should always check you are referring to the most recent version of the handout. The onus is on you, the user, to ensure that you have downloaded the most up-to-date version of a consumer health information handout.