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Research by subject areas P - Z

  • Parasite Infections

    1. Agbata, E. N., et al. (2018).  "Effectiveness of Screening and Treatment Approaches for Schistosomiasis and Strongyloidiasis in Newly-Arrived Migrants from Endemic Countries in the EU/EEA: A Systematic Review." Int J Environ Res Public Health 16(1)  
    2. Asundi, A., et al. (2019). "Prevalence of strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis among migrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Lancet Glob Health 7(2): e236-e248.
    3. Ayyappan, S. and U. Seneviratne (2013). "An African immigrant with seizures and multiple brain lesions. Neurocysticercosis." J Clin Neurosci20(5): 716, 766
    4. Benson, J. (2007). "Asymptomatic schistosomiasis in a young Sudanese refugee." Aust Fam Physician36(4): 249-251
    5. Biggs, B.-A., et al. (2009). "Management of chronic strongyloidiasis in immigrants and refugees: is serologic testing useful?" American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene80(5): 788-791
    6. Britton, P. N. and R. Chaseling (2013). "Brain abscess in a recent immigrant." J Paediatr Child Health49(3): E176-178
    7. Caruana, S. R., et al. (2006). "Undiagnosed and potentially lethal parasite infections among immigrants and refugees in Australia." J Travel Med13(4): 233-239
    8. de Silva, S., et al. (2002). "Chronic Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Laotian immigrants and refugees 7-20 years after resettlement in Australia." Epidemiology & Infection128(3): 439-444
    9. Del Brutto, O. H. (2012). "Neurocysticercosis in Australia: still free of autochthonous cases?" Med J Aust196(6): 385
    10. Del Brutto, O. H., et al. (2012). "Cysticerci-related single parenchymal brain enhancing lesions in non-endemic countries." J Neurol Sci319(1-2): 32-36
    11. Gordon, C. A., et al. (2017).  "Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Tropical Australia and Asia." Trop Med Infect Dis 2(4)  
    12. Goldsmid, J. and S. Bettiol (2020). "Global Medicine, Parasites, and Tasmania." Trop Med Infect Dis 5(1).
    13. Gunaratnam, P., et al. (2014). "Infectious diseases in returned travellers, NSW, 2010-2011." N S W Public Health Bull24(4): 171-175
    14. Jackson, Y., et al. (2014). "Chagas disease in Australia and New Zealand: risks and needs for public health interventions." Trop Med Int Health19(2): 212-218
    15. Jex, A. R., et al. (2011). "Soil-transmitted helminths of humans in Southeast Asia--towards integrated control." Adv Parasitol74: 231-265
    16. Karunajeewa, H., et al. (2006). "Parasite-specific IgG response and peripheral blood eosinophil count following albendazole treatment for presumed chronic strongyloidiasis." J Travel Med13(2): 84-91
    17. Leder, K., et al. (2005). "No correlation between clinical symptoms and Blastocystis hominis in immunocompetent individuals." Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology20(9): 1390-1394
    18. Leder, K. and P. F. Weller (2000). "Eosinophilia and helminthic infections." Bailliere's Best Practice in Clinical Haematology13(2): 301-317
    19. Lucey, J. M., et al. (2010). "Encysted seizures: status epilepticus in a recently resettled refugee child." Medical Journal of Australia192(4): 237
    20. Mohd Abd Rahman, M., et al. (2012). "Intermittent fever, splenomegaly and eosinophilia in a recently resettled African refugee." J Paediatr Child Health48(10): 939-941
    21. Rice, J. E., et al. (2003). "Screening for intestinal parasites in recently arrived children from East Africa." Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health39(6): 456-459
    22. Roberts, T., et al. (2015). "Molecular epidemiology of imported cases of leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014." PLoS One10(3): e0119212
    23. Tebruegge, M., et al. (2011). "Oral ivermectin for the treatment of pediculosis capitis." Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal30(4): 362-363
    24. Volkman, T., et al. (2020). "Schistosoma serology after praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma infection in refugee children resettled in Australia: A retrospective analysis." Travel Med Infect Dis: 101680.
    25. Williams, E., et al. (2016). "A case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a 23-year-old recent immigrant to Australia." Med J Aust204(7): 264
    26. Yong, M. K., et al. (2010). "Long-term follow-up of schistosomiasis serology post-treatment in Australian travelers and immigrants." J Travel Med17(2): 89-93



    1. Baker JR, et al. (2021). “Psychological distress, resettlement stress, and lower school engagement among Arabic-speaking refugee parents in Sydney, Australia: A cross-sectional cohort study.” PLoS Med. 18(7):e1003512.
    2. Bryant, R. A., et al. (2018).  "The effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on refugees' parenting and their children's mental health: a cohort study." Lancet Public Health 3(5): e249-e258  
    3. Della Bona, M., et al. (2019).  "What does 'Keep Watch' mean to migrant parents? Examining differences in supervision, cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and water familiarisation." Int J Public Health 
    4. Dougherty, L., et al. (2020). "Access to appropriate health care for non-English speaking migrant families with a newborn/young child: a systematic scoping literature review." BMC Health Serv Res 20(1): 309.
    5. Grant, J. and P. B. Guerin (2014). "Applying ecological modeling to parenting for Australian refugee families." J Transcult Nurs25(4): 325-333
    6. Joseph, J., et al. (2019). ""Fitting-in Australia" as nurturers: Meta-synthesis on infant feeding experiences among immigrant women." Women Birth 32(6): 533-542. 
    7. Yu, L., et al. (2020). "The Effects of Family Financial Stress and Primary Caregivers' Levels of Acculturation on Children's Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Humanitarian Refugees in Australia." Int J Environ Res Public Health 17(8).


    Post-arrival Screening and Prevalence

    1. Agbata, E. N., et al. (2018).  "Effectiveness of Screening and Treatment Approaches for Schistosomiasis and Strongyloidiasis in Newly-Arrived Migrants from Endemic Countries in the EU/EEA: A Systematic Review." Int J Environ Res Public Health 16(1)
    2. Asundi, A., et al. (2019). "Prevalence of strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis among migrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Lancet Glob Health 7(2): e236-e248.
    3. Aung, E., et al. (2017).  "Interventions for Increasing HIV Testing Uptake in Migrants: A Systematic Review of Evidence." AIDS Behav 21(10): 2844-2859  
    4. Benson, J. and M. M. Smith (2007). "Early health assessment of refugees." Aust Fam Physician36(1-2): 41-43
    5. Chaves, N. J., et al. (2009). "Screening practices for infectious diseases among Burmese refugees in Australia." Emerging Infectious Diseases15(11): 1769-1772
    6. Davidson, N., et al. (2004). "Comprehensive health assessment for newly arrived refugee children in Australia.[Erratum appears in J Paediatr Child Health. 2005 May-Jun;41(5-6):310 Note: Jones, Cheryl [added]]." Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health40(9-10): 562-568
    7. Dowling, A., et al. (2017).  "Measuring self-rated health status among resettled adult refugee populations to inform practice and policy - a scoping review." BMC Health Serv Res 17(1): 817  
    8. Dowling, A., et al. (2019). "An investigation into the association of pre- and post-migration experiences on the self-rated health status among new resettled adult humanitarian refugees to Australia: a protocol for a mixed methods study." BMC Int Health Hum Rights 19(1): 15.
    9. Gibney, K. B., et al. (2009). "The profile of health problems in African immigrants attending an infectious disease unit in Melbourne, Australia." American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene80(5): 805-811
    10. Hale, K., et al. (2006). "Camp to clinic: A refugee journey." Medical Journal of Australia185(11-12): 589-590
    11. Hanes G, et al. (2019). "Paediatric asylum seekers in Western Australia: Identification of adversity and complex needs through comprehensive refugee health assessment." J Paediatr Child Health. 55(11):1367-1373.
    12. Hanes G., et al. (2017). "Adversity and resilience amongst resettling Western Australian paediatric refugees ." J Paediatr Child Health. 2017 May 10.
    13. Heenan, R. C., et al. (2018).  "'I think we've had a health screen': New offshore screening, new refugee health guidelines, new Syrian and Iraqi cohorts: Recommendations, reality, results and review." J Paediatr Child Health 55(1): 95-103.
    14. Hirani, K., et al. (2019). "Medical needs of adolescent refugees resettling in Western Australia." Arch Dis Child 104(9): 880-883.
    15. Hyass, A.M., et al. (2017). "Systematic health screening of refugees after resettlement in recipient countries: a scoping review." Ann Hum Biol.31:1-9.
    16. Johnston, V., et al. (2012). "The health of newly arrived refugees to the Top End of Australia: results of a clinical audit at the Darwin Refugee Health Service." Aust J Prim Health18(3): 242-247
    17. Kardamanidis, K., et al. (2007). "Bug Breakfast in the Bulletin: refugee health." New South Wales Public Health Bulletin18(1-2): 26-27
    18. King, K. and P. Vodicka (2001). "Screening for conditions of public health importance in people arriving in Australia by boat without authority." Med J Aust175(11-12): 600-602
    19. Lindsay K, et al. (2021). “Looking beyond: complex holistic care needs of Syrian and Iraqi refugee children and adolescents.” Arch Dis Child. 2021 Oct 26:archdischild-2021-322718. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2021-322718.
    20. Martin, J. A. and D. B. Mak (2006). "Changing faces: A review of infectious disease screening of refugees by the Migrant Health Unit, Western Australia in 2003 and 2004." Medical Journal of Australia185(11-12): 607-610
    21. McLeod, A. and M. Reeve (2005). "The health status of quota refugees screened by New Zealand's Auckland Public Health Service between 1995 and 2000." N Z Med J118(1224): U1702
    22. Murray, R. J., et al. (2009). "The Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases guidelines for the diagnosis, management and prevention of infections in recently arrived refugees: an abridged outline." Medical Journal of Australia190(8): 421-425
    23. Napwanga, E. S. P., et al. (2020). "Appropriateness of the Asylum Seeker Resource Centre-adapted Refugee Health Assessment Tool." Aust J Prim Health 26(2): 132-139.
    24. Ngo, C. C., et al. (2018).  "Blood screen findings in a 2-year cohort of newly arrived refugees to Sydney, Australia." Public Health Res Pract 28(1
    25. O'Brien, D. P., et al. (2006). "Illness in returned travelers and immigrants/refugees: the 6-year experience of two Australian infectious diseases units." J Travel Med13(3): 145-152
    26. P, J. M., et al. (2018).  "Health issues of refugees attending an infectious disease refugee health clinic in a regional Australian hospital." Aust J Gen Pract 47(5): 305-310  
    27. Patradoon-Ho, P. S. and R. W. Ambler (2012). "Universal post-arrival screening for child refugees in Australia: isn't it time?" J Paediatr Child Health48(2): 99-102
    28. Paxton, G. A., et al. (2012). "Post-arrival health screening in Karen refugees in Australia." PLoS One7(5): e38194
    29. Rew, K. T., et al. (2014). "Immigrant and refugee health: common infectious diseases." FP Essent423: 24-29
    30. Rew, K. T., et al. (2014). "Immigrant and refugee health: medical evaluation." FP Essent423: 11-18
    31. Selvey, L. A. and R. Hall (2018).  "Would a good screening test increase the effectiveness of border screening for influenza control?" Clin Microbiol Infect 24(3): 214-215  
    32. Sheikh, M., et al. (2009). "The epidemiology of health conditions of newly arrived refugee children: a review of patients attending a specialist health clinic in Sydney." Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health45(9): 509-513
    33. Slewa-Younan, S. and M. Radulovic (2013). "Emerging data on resettled Iraqi refugees in Australia: 10 years after the 2003 Iraq conflict." Aust Nurs J20(11): 42
    34. Thomas, S., et al. (2010). "Refugee health." New South Wales Public Health Bulletin21(3-4): 101-102
    35. Tiong, A. C. D., et al. (2006). "Health issues in newly arrived African refugees attending general practice clinics in Melbourne." Medical Journal of Australia185(11-12): 602-606
    36. Trauer JM, et al. (2021). "Tuberculosis in migrants to Australia: Outcomes of a national screening program." Lancet Reg Health West Pac. 10:100135. doi: 10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100135.
    37. Volkman, T., et al. (2020). "Schistosoma serology after praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma infection in refugee children resettled in Australia: A retrospective analysis." Travel Med Infect Dis: 101680.
    38. Zabel, E. W., et al. (2008). "Implementation of CDC refugee blood lead testing guidelines in Minnesota." Public Health Reports123(2): 111-116


    Prescribing and Medication Issues

    1. Bellamy, K., et al. (2015). "Access to medication and pharmacy services for resettled refugees: a systematic review." Aust J Prim Health21(3): 273-278
    2. Bellamy, K., et al. (2016). "Erratum to: Seeking to understand: using generic qualitative research to explore access to medicines and pharmacy services among resettled refugees." Int J Clin Pharm38(2): 469
    3. de Smalen A.W., et al. (2017). "Refugees and antimicrobial resistance: A systematic review." Travel Med Infect Dis 15:23-28.
    4. Kay, M., et al. (2010). "Refugee health: a new model for delivering primary health care." Australian Journal of Primary Health 16(1): 98-103
    5. Shahin, W., et al. (2020). "The role of refugee and migrant migration status on medication adherence: Mediation through illness perceptions." PLoS One 15(1): e0227326
    6. Shewamene, Z., et al. (2020). "Use of traditional and complementary medicine for maternal health and wellbeing by African migrant women in Australia: a mixed method study." BMC Complement Med Ther 20(1): 60.


    Racism and Discrimination

    1. Smith, L. A., et al. (2019). "The mental health of former refugees in regional Australia: A qualitative study." Aust J Rural Health 27(5): 459-462
    2. Willey S, et al. (2022). "Racism, healthcare access and health equity for people seeking asylum." Nurs Inq. 29(1):e12440.
    3. Ziersch, A., et al. (2020). "Discrimination: a health hazard for people from refugee and asylum-seeking backgrounds resettled in Australia." BMC Public Health 20(1): 108.


    Research Methods

    1. (1983). Immigrant and Refugee Youth in the Transition from School to Work or Further Study. Report of Ethnic Liaison Officer Working Party No. 2.
    2. Alzubaidy, H. and J. Marriott (2014). "Patient involvement in social pharmacy research: methodological insights from a project with Arabic-speaking immigrants." Res Social Adm Pharm10(6): 924-925
    3. Boyle, T., et al. (2014). "0132 Do participants who complete a telephone survey in a language other than English differ to those who complete the survey in English?" Occup Environ Med71 Suppl 1: A77
    4. Boylen, S., et al. (2017).  "Impact of professional interpreters on outcomes of hospitalized children from migrant and refugee families with low English proficiency: a systematic review protocol." JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep 15(2): 202-211  
    5. Braunack-Mayer, A. J. and O. R. Gibson (2017).  "Including minority populations in research: we must do better." Med J Aust 207(1): 22-23  
    6. Brooker, A., et al. (2017).  "Using Digital Concept Maps to Distinguish between Young Refugees' Challenges." Journal of Interactive Media in Education 2017(1):  
    7. Brown, F. L., et al. (2018).  "Self Help Plus: study protocol for a cluster-randomised controlled trial of guided self-help with South Sudanese refugee women in Uganda." Glob Ment Health (Camb) 5(e27)  
    8. Carlsson, J., et al. (2014). "From pioneers to scientists: challenges in establishing evidence-gathering models in torture and trauma mental health services for refugees." J Nerv Ment Dis202(9): 630-637
    9. Dean, J., et al. (2012). "Hidden yet visible: methodological challenges researching sexual health in Sudanese refugee communities." Cult Health Sex14(8): 911-924
    10. Dew A. (2021). "Protocol Paper: Conducting Life History Interviews to Explore the Journeys of People with Disability from Syrian and Iraqi Refugee Backgrounds Settling in Australia." Int J Environ Res Public Health. 18(15):7978.
    11. Dowling, A., et al. (2017).  "Measuring self-rated health status among resettled adult refugee populations to inform practice and policy - a scoping review." BMC Health Serv Res 17(1): 817  
    12. Enticott JC,. et al (2017). "Finding "hard to find" literature on hard to find groups: A novel technique to search grey literature on refugees and asylum seekers." Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2017 Sep 4. doi: 10.1002/mpr.1580.
    13. Gibbs, L., et al. (2007). Moving towards increased cultural competency in public health research. Researching with Communities: Grounded Perspectives on Engaging Communities in Research. A. Williamson and R. DeSouza. London, Muddy Creek Press.
    14. Joshi, S., et al. (2014). "Differences in health behaviours between immigrant and non-immigrant groups: a protocol for a systematic review." Syst Rev3: 61
    15. Kwok, C. (2016).  "Conducting Cancer Research among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Groups in Australia: A Reflection on Challenges and Strategies." AIMS Public Health 3(3): 460-469  
    16. Lee, S. K., et al. (2014). "Overcoming language barriers in community-based research with refugee and migrant populations: options for using bilingual workers." BMC Int Health Hum Rights14: 11
    17. Mier, N., et al. (2010). "A qualitative case study examining intervention tailoring for minorities." American Journal of Health Behavior34(6): 822-832
    18. Minas, H., et al. (2013). "Mental health research and evaluation in multicultural Australia: developing a culture of inclusion." Int J Ment Health Syst7(1): 23
    19. Minas, H., et al. (2005). "Mental health research in general practice." Australasian Psychiatry13(2): 181-184
    20. O'Reilly-de Brun, M., et al. (2015). "Involving migrants in the development of guidelines for communication in cross-cultural general practice consultations: a participatory learning and action research project." BMJ Open5(9): e007092
    21. Parajuli J, Horey D. (2021). "Reflections on researching vulnerable populations: Lessons from a study with Bhutanese refugee women." Nurs Inq. e12443.
    22. Raymer, J. and A. Wisniowski (2018).  "Applying and testing a forecasting model for age and sex patterns of immigration and emigration." Popul Stud (Camb) 72(3): 339-355  
    23. Riggs, E., et al. (2015). "Promoting the inclusion of Afghan women and men in research: reflections from research and community partners involved in implementing a 'proof of concept' project." Int J Equity Health14: 13
    24. Silove, D. (2012). "Treatment of refugees at the crossroads: the need for an evidence base." Aust N Z J Psychiatry46(10): 921-923
    25. Smith, Y. R., et al. (2007). "Perceptions of clinical research participation among African American women." Journal of Women's Health16(3): 423-428
    26. Stanaway, F., et al. (2017).  "Exclusions from clinical trials in Australia based on proficiency in English." Med J Aust 207(1): 36  
    27. Vromans, L., et al. (2012). "The Multidimensional Loss Scale: validating a cross-cultural instrument for measuring loss." J Nerv Ment Dis200(4): 349-357
    28. Wickramage, K., et al. (2018).  "Migration and health: a global public health research priority." BMC Public Health 18(1): 987  
    29. Zion, D., et al. (2010). "Response to open peer commentaries on "Returning to history: the ethics of researching asylum seeker health in Australia"." Am J Bioeth10(2): W6-7
    30. Zion, D., et al. (2010). "Returning to history: the ethics of researching asylum seeker health in Australia." Am J Bioeth10(2): 48-56



    1. Adebayo, B., et al. (2016). "Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) carers' perceptions of oral care in residential aged care settings in Perth, Western Australia." Gerodontology
    2. Adebayo, B., et al. (2017).  "Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) carers' perceptions of oral care in residential aged care settings in Perth, Western Australia." Gerodontology 34(1): 33-41  
    3. Basic, D., et al. (2017).  "The Impact of Being a Migrant from a Non-English-Speaking Country on Healthcare Outcomes in Frail Older Inpatients: an Australian Study." J Cross Cult Gerontol 32(4): 447-460  
    4. Georgeou N, et al. (2021). “A Scoping Review of Ageing Experiences among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse People in Australia: Towards Better Ageing Policy and Cultural Well-Being for Migrant and Refugee Adults.” Gerontologist. gnab191.
    5. Gillham, D., et al. (2018).  "Using research evidence to inform staff learning needs in cross-cultural communication in aged care homes." Nurse Educ Today 63:18-23  
    6. Jetten, J., et al. (2018).  "Ageing well in a foreign land as a process of successful social identity change." Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being 13(1)  
    7. Low, L. F. and D. LoGiudice (2018).  "Residents from non-English-speaking countries of birth in Australian aged care facilities." Australas J Ageing 37(3): E85-e90  
    8. Millard, A., et al. (2018).  "The significance of digital citizenship in the well-being of older migrants." Public Health 158:144-148  
    9. Shanley, C., et al. (2013). "Qualitative research on dementia in ethnically diverse communities: fieldwork challenges and opportunities." Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen28(3): 278-283
    10. Sneesby, L., et al. (2011). "Death and dying in Australia: perceptions of a Sudanese community." J Adv Nurs67(12): 2696-2702
    11. Tan, J., et al. (2010). "Experiences of Chinese immigrants and Anglo-Australians ageing in Australia: a cross-cultural perspective on successful ageing." Journal of Health Psychology15(5): 697-706
    12. Xiao, L. D., et al. (2015). "Perceived Challenges in Dementia Care by Vietnamese Family Caregivers and Care Workers in South Australia." Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology30(3): 333-352


    Service Delivery, Access and Care Models

    1. Alizadeh-Khoei, M., et al. (2011). "The role of acculturation in health status and utilization of health services among the iranian elderly in metropolitan Sydney." J Cross Cult Gerontol26(4): 397-405
    2. Alzubaidi, H., et al. (2015). "Barriers and enablers to healthcare access and use among Arabic-speaking and Caucasian English-speaking patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative comparative study." BMJ Open5(11): e008687
    3. Au M, et al. (2021). “The Refugee Co-Location Model may be useful in addressing refugee barriers to care. What do refugees think?” Aust J Prim Health. 2021 Dec;27(6):425-426.
    4. Au, M., et al. (2019). "A model explaining refugee experiences of the Australian healthcare system: a systematic review of refugee perceptions." BMC Int Health Hum Rights 19(1): 22.
    5. Banham, D., et al. (2019). "How much emergency department use by vulnerable populations is potentially preventable?: A period prevalence study of linked public hospital data in South Australia." BMJ Open 9(1): e022845.
    6. Bartlett, R., et al. (2020). "Empathy and journey mapping the healthcare experience: a community-based participatory approach to exploring women's access to primary health services within Melbourne's Arabic-speaking refugee communities." Ethn Health: 1-17.
    7. Brandenberger, J., et al. (2020). "Preventable admissions and emergency-department-visits in pediatric asylum-seeking and non-asylum-seeking patients." Int J Equity Health 19(1): 58.
    8. Bellamy, K., et al. (2017).  "Perspectives of resettled African refugees on accessing medicines and pharmacy services in Queensland, Australia." Int J Pharm Pract 25(5): 358-364  
    9. Chaker Jomaa M. (2021). "Service spotlight: Dr John Best and the injury clinic for asylum seekers and refugees." Br J Sports Med. 55(16):935-936.
    10. Cheng, I. H., et al. (2015). "Refugee experiences of general practice in countries of resettlement: a literature review." Br J Gen Pract65(632): e171-176
    11. Cheng, I. H., et al. (2015). "Rites of passage: improving refugee access to general practice services." Aust Fam Physician44(7): 503-507
    12. Clark, A., et al. (2014). "'Excuse me, do any of you ladies speak English?' Perspectives of refugee women living in South Australia: barriers to accessing primary health care and achieving the Quality Use of Medicines." Aust J Prim Health20(1): 92-97
    13. Colton, C. and T. Faunce (2014). "Commissions of audit in Australia: health system privatisation directives and civil conscription protections." J Law Med21(3): 561-571
    14. Colucci, E., et al. (2015). "In or out? Barriers and facilitators to refugee-background young people accessing mental health services." Transcult Psychiatry52(6): 766-790
    15. Correa-Velez, I., et al. (2008). "Community-based asylum seekers' use of primary health care services in Melbourne." Medical Journal of Australia188(6): 344-348
    16. Correa-Velez, I., et al. (2007). "Hospital utilisation among people born in refugee-source countries: an analysis of hospital admissions, Victoria, 1998-2004." Medical Journal of Australia186(11): 577-580
    17. Davidson, N., et al. (2004). "An issue of access: delivering equitable health care for newly arrived refugee children in Australia." Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health40(9-10): 569-575
    18. Davidson, N., et al. (2007). "Equitable access to dental care for an at-risk group: a review of services for Australian refugees." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health31(1): 73-80
    19. Deans, A. K., et al. (2013). "Use of Royal Darwin Hospital emergency department by immigration detainees in 2011." Med J Aust199(11): 776-778
    20. Dolman, J., et al. (1996). "A survey of health agencies' responses to non-English-speaking women's health needs in south Australia." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health20(2): 155-160
    21. Dougherty, L., et al. (2020). "Access to appropriate health care for non-English speaking migrant families with a newborn/young child: a systematic scoping literature review." BMC Health Serv Res 20(1): 309.
    22. Drummond, P. D., et al. (2011). "Barriers to accessing health care services for West African refugee women living in Western Australia." Health Care Women Int32(3): 206-224\
    23. Due C, Currie E. (2021). “Practitioner competencies for working with refugee children and young people: A scoping review.” Transcult Psychiatry. 
    24. Enticott, J. C., et al. (2014). "Emergency department mental health presentations by people born in refugee source countries: an epidemiological logistic regression study in a Medicare Local region in Australia." Aust J Prim Health
    25. Enticott, J. C., et al.(2015). "Emergency department mental health presentations by people born in refugee source countries: an epidemiological logistic regression study in a Medicare Local region in Australia." Aust J Prim Health21(3): 286-292
    26. Fair, G. L., et al. (2018).  "Transition from an asylum seeker-specific health service to mainstream primary care for community-based asylum seekers: a qualitative interview study." Public Health Res Pract 28(1):  
    27. Gmunder, M., et al. (2020). "Reasons for admission in asylum-seeking and non-asylum-seeking patients in a paediatric tertiary care centre." Swiss Med Wkly 150: w20252.
    28. Goodall, K., et al. (2010). "Use of information and communication technology to provide health information: what do older migrants know, and what do they need to know?" Quality in Primary Care18(1): 27-32
    29. Hadgkiss, E. J. and A. M. Renzaho (2014). "The physical health status, service utilisation and barriers to accessing care for asylum seekers residing in the community: a systematic review of the literature." Aust Health Rev38(2): 142-159
    30. Haines, B. C., et al. (2018).  "The role of social enterprise in food insecurity among asylum seekers." Health Soc Care Community 26(6): 829-838  
    31. Hancock, P., et al. (2009). "Evaluation of the Integrated Services Pilot Program from Western Australia." Evaluation and Program Planning32(3): 238-246
    32. Harris, M. F. (2012). "Access to preventive care by immigrant populations." BMC Med10: 55
    33. Harris, M. F. (2018).  "Integration of refugees into routine primary care in NSW, Australia." Public Health Res Pract 28(1):  
    34. Heywood, A. E. and R. Lopez-Velez (2018).  "Reducing infectious disease inequities among migrants." J Travel Med 1;26(2)  
    35. Javanparast S, et al. (2020). “Health service access and utilisation amongst culturally and linguistically diverse populations in regional South Australia: a qualitative study.” Rural Remote Health. 20(4):5694.
    36. Jewson, A., et al. (2015). "Service providers' experiences and needs in working with refugees in the Geelong region: a qualitative study." Aust J Prim Health21(2): 233-238
    37. Joshua, P., et al. (2015). "Prioritizing vulnerable children: why should we address inequity?" Child Care Health Dev41(6): 818-826
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    1. Cheng, H. M. and S. P. Kumarasinghe (2014). "Dermatological problems of asylum seekers arriving on boats: a case report from Australia and a brief review." Australas J Dermatol55(4): 270-274
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    Substance Use and Smoking

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    5. Jaworski, A., et al. (2016). "Developing a guide for community-based groups to reduce alcohol-related harm among African migrants." Health Promot J Austr
    6. Joshi, S., et al. (2018).  "Tobacco smoking between immigrants and non-immigrants in Australia: A longitudinal investigation of the effect of nativity, duration of residence and age at arrival." Health Promot J Austr 29(3): 282-292  
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    12. Roberts, B. and N. Ezard (2015). "Why are we not doing more for alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected populations?" Addiction110(6): 889-890
    13. Rowe, R., et al. (2018).  "What is the alcohol, tobacco, and other drug prevalence among culturally and linguistically diverse groups in the Australian population? A national study of prevalence, harms, and attitudes." J Ethn Subst Abuse 1-18  
    14. Rowland, B., et al. (2014). "The relationship between the density of alcohol outlets and parental supply of alcohol to adolescents." Addict Behav39(12): 1898-1903
    15. Savic, M., et al. (2014). "Alcohol problems among migrants in substance use treatment: the role of drinking patterns in countries of birth." Aust J Prim Health20(3): 220-221
    16. Sukumar, S., et al. (2012). "Areca nut chewing in an expatriate population in Sydney: report of two cases." Aust Dent J57(3): 373-378
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    85. Samaan, G., et al. (2003). "Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2002." Commun Dis Intell Q Rep27(4): 449-458
    86. Soler-Garcia A, et al. (2021). “Performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus assays in children and adolescents at risk of tuberculosis: a cross-sectional multicentre study.” Thorax. thoraxjnl-2021-217592.
    87. Steinfort, D. P., et al. (2009). "Endobronchial ultrasound-guided biopsy in the evaluation of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy in suspected tuberculosis: a minimally invasive technique with a high diagnostic yield." Journal of Infection 58(4): 309-311
    88. Stock, D. (2017).  "National position statement for the management of latent tuberculosis infection." Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 41(3): E204-e208  
    89. Stott, S. M., et al. (2015). "Comparison of roentgenographic manifestations of active pulmonary tuberculosis between migrant and non-migrant populations in the Hunter Region." J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol59(6): 668-672
    90. Tebruegge, M., et al. (2010). "Discordance between TSTs and IFN-gamma release assays: the role of NTM and the relevance of mycobacterial sensitins." European Respiratory Journal36(1): 214-215; author reply 215-216
    91. Teo, S. S., et al. (2015). "The epidemiology of tuberculosis in children in Australia, 2003-2012." Med J Aust203(11): 440
    92. Toms, C., et al. (2017).  "Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2014." Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 41(3): E247-e263  
    93. Toms, C., et al. (2015). "Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2012 and 2013." Commun Dis Intell Q Rep39(2): E217-235
    94. Trauer JM, et al. (2021). "Tuberculosis in migrants to Australia: Outcomes of a national screening program." Lancet Reg Health West Pac. 10:100135.
    95. Trauer, J. M. and V. L. Krause(2011). "Assessment and management of latent tuberculosis infection in a refugee population in the Northern Territory." Med J Aust194(11): 579-582
    96. Usemann, J., et al. (2019). "Cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis screening for migrant children in a low-incidence country." Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 23(5): 579-586.
    97. Waring, J. and J. Waring (2017).  "National Tuberculosis Advisory Committee Guideline: Management of Tuberculosis Risk in Healthcare Workers in Australia." Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 41(3): E199-e203  
    98. White, Z., et al. (2017). "Immigrant Arrival and Tuberculosis among Large Immigrant- and Refugee-Receiving Countries, 2005-2009. Tuberc Res Treat.2017:8567893
    99. Williams, E., et al. (2018).  "Delays in presentation and diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: a retrospective study of a tertiary health service in Western Melbourne, 2011-2014." Intern Med J 48(2): 184-193  
    100. Yao, A., et al. (2018).  "Orbital tuberculosis: perspectives from Victoria, Australia." Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 256(12): 2443-2448  
    101. Zar, H. J., et al. (2010). "Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: new advances." Expert Review of Antiinfective Therapy8(3): 277-288


    Unaccompanied Minors

    1. Foong, A., et al. (2018).  "The mental health plight of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children in detention." J Adv Nurs  J Adv Nurs. 2019 Feb;75(2):255-257.
    2. Oldroyd JC, et al. (2021). “The experiences of children and adolescents undergoing forced separation from their parents during migration: A systematic review.” Health Soc Care Community. 2021 Oct 7. doi: 10.1111/hsc.13595.
    3. Zwi, K. and S. Mares (2015). "Stories from unaccompanied children in immigration detention: A composite account." J Paediatr Child Health51(7): 658-662

    Vision and Hearing

    1. Azizoglu, S., et al. (2011). "Refractive errors in students from Middle Eastern backgrounds living and undertaking schooling in Australia." Clin Exp Optom94(1): 67-75
    2. Benson, J. and L. Mwanri (2012). "Chronic suppurative otitis media and cholesteatoma in Australia's refugee population." Aust Fam Physician41(12): 978-980
    3. Kaphle, D., et al. (2016). "Vision Impairment and Ocular Morbidity in a Refugee Population in Malawi." Optom Vis Sci93(2): 188-193
    4. Selvarajah S, et al. (2019). “Vision impairment and refractive errors in refugees presenting to community optometry clinics in Victoria, Australia.” Clin Exp Optom. 2020 Sep;103(5):668-674.


    Visiting Friends and Relatives

    1. Heywood, A. E. and N. Zwar (2018).  "Improving access and provision of pre-travel healthcare for travellers visiting friends and relatives: a review of the evidence." J Travel Med 25(1):  
    2. Heywood, A. E., et al. (2015). "General Practitioners' Perception of Risk for Travelers Visiting Friends and Relatives." J Travel Med22(6): 368-374
    3. Woolley, I. and C. Bailey (2012). "Visiting friends and relatives may be a risk for non-adherence for HIV-positive travellers." Int J STD AIDS23(11): 833-834


    Vitamin D

    1. Benitez-Aguirre, P. Z., et al. (2009). "The natural history of vitamin D deficiency in African refugees living in Sydney." Med J Aust190(8): 426-428
    2. Benson, J. and S. Skull (2007). "Hiding from the sun - vitamin D deficiency in refugees." Aust Fam Physician36(5): 355-357
    3. Benson, J., et al. (2006). "Muscle pain as an indicator of vitamin D deficiency in an urban Australian Aboriginal population." Medical Journal of Australia185(2): 76-77
    4. Brock, K. E., et al. (2013). "Vitamin D status is associated with sun exposure, vitamin D and calcium intake, acculturation and attitudes in immigrant East Asian women living in Sydney." J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol136: 214-217
    5. Callister, P., et al. (2011). "The risks and benefits of sun exposure: should skin colour or ethnicity be the main variable for communicating health promotion messages in New Zealand?" Ethn Health16(1): 57-71
    6. Gibney, K. B., et al. (2008). "Vitamin D deficiency is associated with tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa." Clinical Infectious Diseases46(3): 443-446
    7. Gowda U,. et al. (2017). "Efficacy of high dose Vitamin D supplementation in improving serum 25(OH)D among migrant and non migrant population: a retrospective study." BMC Health Serv Res. 2016 Oct 13;16(1):579.
    8. Gowda, U., et al. (2016). "Vitamin D testing patterns among general practitioners in a major Victorian primary health care service." Aust N Z J Public Health40(2): 144-147
    9. Gray, K., et al. (2012). "Vitamin d and tuberculosis status in refugee children." Pediatr Infect Dis J31(5): 521-523
    10. Grover, S. R. and R. Morley (2001). "Vitamin D deficiency in veiled or dark-skinned pregnant women." Medical Journal of Australia175(5): 251-252
    11. Guo, S., et al. (2014). "Sun exposure and vitamin D status as Northeast Asian migrants become acculturated to life in Australia." Photochem Photobiol90(6): 1455-1461
    12. Hogler, W. and C. F. Munns (2016). "Rickets and osteomalacia: a call for action to protect immigrants and ethnic risk groups." Lancet Glob Health4(4): e229-230
    13. Horton-French, K., et al. (2019). "Prevalence and Predictors of Vitamin D Deficiency among African Immigrants Living in Australia." Int J Environ Res Public Health 16(16).
    14. Martin, C. A., et al. (2016). "The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among dark-skinned populations according to their stage of migration and region of birth: A meta-analysis." Nutrition32(1): 21-32
    15. Mazahery, H., et al. (2015). "The effect of monthly 50 000 IU or 100 000 IU vitamin D supplements on vitamin D status in premenopausal Middle Eastern women living in Auckland." Eur J Clin Nutr69(3): 367-372
    16. McGillivray, G., et al. (2007). "High prevalence of asymptomatic vitamin D and iron deficiency in East African immigrant children and adolescents living in a temperate climate." Arch Dis Child92(12): 1088-1093
    17. Munns, C. F., et al. (2012). "Incidence of vitamin D deficiency rickets among Australian children: an Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit study." Med J Aust196(7): 466-468
    18. Nowson, C. A., et al. (2012). "Vitamin D and health in adults in Australia and New Zealand: a position statement." Med J Aust196(11): 686-687
    19. Nozza, J. M. and C. P. Rodda (2001). "Vitamin D deficiency in mothers of infants with rickets." Medical Journal of Australia175(5): 253-255
    20. Paxton, G. A., et al. (2013). "Vitamin D and health in pregnancy, infants, children and adolescents in Australia and New Zealand: a position statement." Med J Aust198(3): 142-143
    21. Pirrone, A., et al. (2013). "Vitamin D deficiency awareness among African migrant women residing in high-rise public housing in Melbourne, Australia: a qualitative study." Asia Pac J Clin Nutr22(2): 292-299
    22. Renzaho, A. M., et al. (2011). "Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease among African migrant and refugee adults in Melbourne: a pilot study." Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition20(3): 397-403
    23. Renzaho, A. M. N., et al. (2011). "Vitamin D, obesity, and obesity-related chronic disease among ethnic minorities: a systematic review." Nutrition27(9): 868-879
    24. Robinson, P. D., et al. (2006). "The re-emerging burden of rickets: a decade of experience from Sydney." Arch Dis Child91(7): 564-568
    25. Ruwanpathirana, T., et al. (2015). "Can oral vitamin D prevent the cardiovascular diseases among migrants in Australia? Provider perspective using Markov modelling." Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol42(6): 596-601
    26. Ruwanpathirana, T., et al. (2014). "Assessment of vitamin D and its association with cardiovascular disease risk factors in an adult migrant population: an audit of patient records at a Community Health Centre in Kensington, Melbourne, Australia." BMC Cardiovasc Disord14: 157
    27. Scheltinga, F., et al. (2014). "Varying sun protection of young children by migrant and Australian-born mothers." Aust N Z J Public Health38(6): 513-517
    28. Sheikh, M., et al. (2011). "Vitamin D deficiency in refugee children from conflict zones." Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health13(1): 87-93
    29. Skull, S. A., et al. (2003). "Vitamin D deficiency is common and unrecognized among recently arrived adult immigrants from The Horn of Africa." Internal Medicine Journal33(1-2): 47-51
    30. Thomson, K., et al. (2004). "Postnatal evaluation of vitamin D and bone health in women who were vitamin D-deficient in pregnancy, and in their infants.[Erratum appears in Med J Aust. 2005 Jan 3;182(1):48 Note: Thompson, Katherine [corrected to Thomson, Katherine]]." Medical Journal of Australia181(9): 486-488
    31. Wadia, U., et al. (2018).  "Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing Daily Versus Depot Vitamin D3 Therapy in 0-16-Year-Old Newly Settled Refugees in Western Australia Over a Period of 40 Weeks." Nutrients 10(3):  


    Work and Occupation

    1. Boyle, T., et al. (2014). "0134 Prevalence of exposure to occupational carcinogens among ethnic minority workers in Australia." Occup Environ Med71 Suppl 1: A16
    2. Childs, A. J. (2018).  "Young Australians' Education and Employment Transitions: Comparing Young Immigrants' Well-Being to Their Australian Peers." Multicultural Education Review 10(2): 121-138  
    3. Daly, A., et al. (2018).  "Workplace psychosocial stressors experienced by migrant workers in Australia: A cross-sectional study." PLoS One 13(9): e0203998  
    4. Dansie, A. (2012). "Proof of work rights." Aust Nurs J20(6): 24
    5. Devos, A. (2011). "Learning to Labour in Regional Australia: Gender, Identity and Place in Lifelong Learning." International Journal of Lifelong Education30(4): 437-450
    6. Ng Chok, H., et al. (2018).  "Experiences of registered nurses from a refugee background: A scoping review." J Clin Nurs  
    7. Reid, A. (2012). "Under-use of migrants' employment skills linked to poorer mental health." Aust N Z J Public Health36(2): 120-125
    8. Reid, A., et al. (2014). "0131 Taking risks and survival jobs: foreign-born workers and work-related injuries in Australia." Occup Environ Med71 Suppl 1: A15
    9. Reid, A., et al. (2014). "0129 Work related mortality and hospital admissions among migrant workers in Australia, 1991-2010." Occup Environ Med71 Suppl 1: A15


    Immigrant health clinic resources, Updated Sep 2022, Authors: Drs Anthea Rhodes, Vanessa Clifford, Daniel Engelman, Shidan Tosif, Karen Kiang, Sophie Oldfield, Tom Volkman, Ingrid Laemmle-Ruff, Linny Phuong, Eva Sudbury, Georgie Paxton, or