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References

  • Anaemia and iron deficiency

    1. Paxton GA, Sangster KJ, Maxwell EL, McBride CR, Drewe RH. Post-arrival health screening in Karen refugees in Australia. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e38194. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038194. Epub 2012 May 31.
    2. Sheikh M, Pal A, Wang S, et al. The epidemiology of health conditions of newly arrived refugee children: a review of patients attending a specialist health clinic in Sydney. J Paediatr Child Health 2009;45:509-13.
    3. McGillivray G, Skull SA, Davie G, et al. High prevalence of asymptomatic vitamin D and iron deficiency in East African immigrant children and adolescents living in a temperate climate. Arch Dis Child 2007;92:1088-93.
    4. Tiong ACD, Patel, M.S., Gardiner, J. et al. Health issues in newly arrived African refugees attending general practice clinics in Melbourne. Medical Journal of Australia 2006;185:602-6.
    5. Lozoff B, Georgieff MK. Iron deficiency and brain development. Semin Pediatr Neurol 2006;13:158-65.
    6. Benson J, Phillips C, Kay M, et al. Low vitamin B12 levels among newly-arrived refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: a multicentre Australian study. PLoS One 2013;8:e57998.
    7. Geltman PL, Brown MJ, Cochran J. Lead poisoning among refugee children resettled in Massachusetts, 1995 to 1999.[see comment]. Pediatrics 2001;108:158-62.
    8. Hayes EB, Talbot SB, Matheson ES, Pressler HM, Hanna AB, McCarthy CA. Health status of pediatric refugees in Portland, ME. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152:564-8.
    9. Leads from the MMWR. Folk remedy-associated lead poisoning in Hmong children. Jama 1983;250:3149-50.
    10. Simon P, Zimmerman A, O'Connor W, Vang C. The risk of lead poisoning among southeast Asian refugee children in Rhode Island 1984-1988. R I Med J 1989;72:283-7.
    11. Mitchell T, Jentes E, Ortega L, et al. Elevated Blood Lead Levels among Children in Refugee Camps Mae La, Umpiem, and Nupo Refugee Camps, Tak Province, Thailand June 2–19, 2009. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2009.
    12. Mitchell T, Jentes E, Ortega L, et al. Lead poisoning in United States-bound refugee children: Thailand-Burma border, 2009. Pediatrics 2012;129:e392-9.
    13. Ritchey MD, Scalia Sucosky M, Jefferies T, et al. Lead poisoning among Burmese refugee children--Indiana, 2009. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2011;50:648-56.
    14. CDC Recommendations for Lead Poisoning Prevention in Newly Arrived Refugee Children. Centers for Disease Control, 2011. (Accessed 1 January 2012, at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/Publications/RefugeeToolKit/pdfs/CDCRecommendations.pdf.)
    15. Haddy TB1, Rana SR, Castro O. Benign ethnic neutropenia: what is a normal absolute neutrophil count? J Lab Clin Med. 1999 Jan;133(1):15-22.
    16. Hsieh M, Chin K, Link B, Stroncek D, Wang E, Everhart J, Tisdale JF, Rodgers G. Benign Ethnic Neutropenia in Individuals of African Descent: Incidence, Granulocyte Mobilization, and Gene Expression Profiling. Blood (2005) 106 (11): 3069.
    17. Charles BA, Hsieh MM, Adeyemo AA, Shriner D, Ramos E, Chin K, Srivastava K, Zakai NA, Cushman M, McClure LA, Howard V, Flegel WA, Rotimi CN, Rodgers GP. Analyses of genome wide association data, cytokines, and gene expression in African-Americans with benign ethnic neutropenia. PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0194400. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194400

    Arsenic and lead contamination of Burmese traditional medicines

    1. Health Warning to avoid Burmese traditional powders.  Sydney: Department of Health, NSW Government; 2012 [20 April 2012]; Available from: http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/news/2012/20120414_00.html
    2. Ritchey MD, Scalia Sucosky M, Jefferies T, McCormick D, Hesting A, Blanton C, et al. Lead poisoning among Burmese refugee children--Indiana, 2009. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2011 Jul;50(7):648-56
    3. Thomas X, Troncy J. Arsenic: a beneficial therapeutic poison - a historical overview. Adler Mus Bull. [Historical Article]. 2009 Jun;35(1):3-13
    4. Needleman H. Low level lead exposure: history and discovery. Annals of Epidemiology. [Historical Article].19(4):235-8.
    5. Geltman PL, Brown MJ, Cochran J. Lead poisoning among refugee children resettled in Massachusetts, 1995 to 1999.[see comment]. Pediatrics. 2001 Jul
      Jul;108(1):158-62.
    6. Hayes EB, Talbot SB, Matheson ES, Pressler HM, Hanna AB, McCarthy CA. Health status of pediatric refugees in Portland, ME. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998 Jun;152(6):564-8
    7. Leads from the MMWR. Folk remedy-associated lead poisoning in Hmong children. Jama. 1983 Dec 16;250(23):3149-50.
    8. Simon P, Zimmerman A, O'Connor W, Vang C. The risk of lead poisoning among southeast Asian refugee children in Rhode Island 1984-1988. R I Med J. 1989 Aug;72(8):283-7.
    9. Mitchell T, Jentes E, Ortega L, Bajcevic P, Jones W, Parr V, et al. Elevated Blood Lead Levels among Children in Refugee Camps Mae La, Umpiem, and Nupo Refugee Camps, Tak Province, Thailand June 2-19, 2009. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2009.
    10. 10. CDC Recommendations for Lead Poisoning Prevention in Newly Arrived Refugee Children. Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control; 2011 to current  [ initial 1 January 2012, most recent 17 Apr 2020]; Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/Publications/RefugeeToolKit/pdfs/CDCRecommendations.pdf.

    Birthdate issues

    1. Greulich, WW., Pyle, SI. & Waterhouse, AM. A radiographic standard of reference for the growing hand and wrist. Chicago. Case Western Reserve University, 1971.
    2. Mora, S., Boechet, MI., Pietka, EWA, et al. Skeletal age determinations in children of European and African descent: applicability of the Greulich and Pyle standards. Pediatric Research, 2001;50(50):624-628.
    3. Ontell, FK., Ivanovic, M., Albin, DS. & Barlow, TW. Bone age in children of diverse ethnicity. American Journal of Roentgenology, 1996;167(6):1395-1398.
    4. Chiang, K-H., Chou  ASB., Yen, PS., et al.The reliability of using Greulich-Pyle method to determine children's bone age in Taiwan. Tzu Chi Medicine Journal. 2005;17:417-420.

    Education assessment

    1. John CC, Bangirana P, Byarugaba J, et al. Cerebral Malaria in Children Is Associated With Long-term Cognitive Impairment. Pediatrics 2008;Published online June 9, (doi:10.1542/peds.2007-3709)
    2. Carter JA, Mung'ala-Odera V, Neville BG, et al. Persistent neurocognitive impairments associated with severe falciparum malaria in Kenyan children. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 2005;76(4):476-81.
    3. Grantham-McGregor S. A review of studies of the effect of severe malnutrition on mental development. The Journal of nutrition 1995;125(8 Suppl):2233S-8S.

    Growth and nutrition

    1. Renzaho AM, Gibbons C, Swinburn B, Jolley D, Burns C. Obesity and undernutrition in sub-Saharan African immigrant and refugee children in Victoria, Australia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2006;15:482-90
    2. Assessment of differences in linear growth among populations in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study. Acta Paediatr Suppl 2006;450:56-65
    3. Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Guo SS, et al. 2000 CDC Growth Charts for the United States: methods and development. Vital Health Stat 11 2002:1-190.
    4. Australian Institute for Health and Welfare (AIHW). Australia's Children: Overweight and obesity. Australian Government, Canberra, 2020. Accessed 18 Apr 2020 at: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/children-youth/australias-children/contents/health/overweight-and-obesity
    5. Healthy food is a human right, yet in some refugee communities in Australia 8 out of 10 don't have enought to eat. Discussion paper. Fairfield Nutrition Project, 2008. (Accessed 10 May 2008, at http://www.ncoss.org.au/bookshelf/conference/download/perspectives_on_poverty/faye-southcombe-oct07.pdf.
    6. Gallegos D, Ellies P, Wright J. Still there's no food! Food insecurity in a refugee population in Perth, Western Australia. Nutrition and Dietetics 2008;65:78-83.

    Helicobacter pylori

    1. Bornschein J, Rokkas T, Selgrad M, Malfertheiner P. Gastric cancer: clinical aspects, epidemiology and molecular background. Helicobacter 2011;16 Suppl 1:45-52.
    2. Jones NL1, Koletzko S, Goodman K, Bontems P, Cadranel S, Casswall T, Czinn S, Gold BD, Guarner J, Elitsur Y, Homan M, Kalach N, Kori M, Madrazo A, Megraud F, Papadopoulou A, Rowland M; ESPGHAN, NASPGHAN. Joint ESPGHAN/NASPGHAN Guidelines for the Management of Helicobacter pylori in Children and Adolescents (Update 2016). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017 Jun;64(6):991-1003.
    3. Spee LAA, Madderom MB, Pijpers M, van Leeuwen Y, Berger MY. Association between helicobacter pylori and gastrointestinal symptoms in children. Pediatrics 2010;125:e651-69.
    4. Logan RP, Walker MM. ABC of the upper gastrointestinal tract: Epidemiology and diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Bmj 2001;323:920-2.
    5. Koletzko S, Jones NL, Goodman KJ, et al. Evidence-based guidelines from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN for Helicobacter pylori infection in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2011;53:230-43.
    6. Cherian S, Forbes D, Sanfilippo F, Cook A, Burgner D. The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in African refugee children resettled in Australia. The Medical journal of Australia 2008;189:438-41.
    7. Guarner J, Kalach N, Elitsur Y, Koletzko S. Helicobacter pylori diagnostic tests in children: review of the literature from 1999 to 2009. Eur J Pediatr 2010;169:15-25.
    8. Cherian S, Burgner DP, Carson CF, Sanfilippo FM, Cook AG, Forbes DA. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in a high-prevalence pediatric population: a comparison of 2 fecal antigen testing methods and serology. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2008;47:130-5.
    9. Therapeutic guidelines: eTG complete: Gastrointestinal: Gastric disorders, Helicobacter pylori infection. 2020, accessed 15 April 2020. Available at: https://tgldcdp-tg-org-au-acs-hcn-com-au.eu1.proxy.openathens.net/viewTopic?topicfile=gastric-disorders&guidelineName=Gastrointestinal#toc_d1e57.
    10. Rerksuppaphol S, Hardikar W, Midolo PD, Ward P. Antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori isolates from children. Journal of paediatrics and child health 2003;39:332-5.
    11. De Francesco V, Giorgio F, Hassan C, et al. Worldwide H. pylori antibiotic resistance: a systematic review. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2010;19:409-14.

    Hepatitis B screening

    1. Fisher DA. and Huffam SE. Management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in remote-dwelling Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders: an update for primary healthcare providers. Med J Aust, 2003. 178(2): p. 82-5.
    2. Beasley RP et al Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. A prospective study of 22 707 men in Taiwan. Lancet, 1981. 2(8256): p. 1129-33.
    3. Shepard CW et al. Epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis B virus infection in United States children. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2005. 24(9): p. 755-60.
    4. Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI). Australian Immunisation Handbook, Australian Government Department of Health, Canberra, 2018, immunisationhandbook.health.gov.au.
    5. Poland GA and Jacobson RM. Clinical practice: prevention of hepatitis B with the hepatitis B vaccine. N Engl J Med, 2004. 351(27): p. 2832-8.
    6. Aspinall EJ et al. Hepatitis B prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care: a review. Occup Med (Lond), 2011. 61(8): p. 531-40.
    7. McMahon BJ et al. Acute hepatitis B virus infection: relation of age to the clinical expression of disease and subsequent development of the carrier state. J Infect Dis, 1985. 151(4): p. 599-603.
    8. Prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Asia-Pacific region: consensus statements. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2010. 25(4): p. 657-63.
    9. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 86: Viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol, 2007. 110(4): p. 941-56.
    10. Pan CQ et al. An algorithm for risk assessment and intervention of mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2012. 10(5): p. 452-9.
    11. Palasanthiran P, Starr M, Jones C, and Giles M. (Eds) Hepatitis B. In: Management of perinatal infections. Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases Guidelines, Sydney, 2014, https://www.asid.net.au/documents/item/368
    12. World Health Organization. Hepatitis B. Factsheet no 204. 2012 [cited 2013 29th May]; Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs204/en/.
    13. Tiong AC et al. Health issues in newly arrived African refugees attending general practice clinics in Melbourne. The Medical journal of Australia, 2006. 185(11-12): p. 602-6.
    14. Martin JA and Mak DB. Changing faces: A review of infectious disease screening of refugees by the Migrant Health Unit, Western Australia in 2003 and 2004. Med J Aust, 2006. 185(11-12): p. 607-10.
    15. Johnson D. Rates of infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies in newly arrived African refugees., Central Northern Adelaide Health Service, 2007, Government of South Australia: Adelaide.
    16. Davis J and Webber M. A prospective audit of infectious diseases in 222 newly arrived African refugees. Poster presented at:, in Royal Australasian College of Physicians Annual Scientific Meeting: Cairns.
    17. Cooley L. Prevalence of selected infectious diseases in an African refugee population- paediatric data. Personal communication, 2006.
    18. Cooley L et al. Prevalence of selected infectious diseases in an African refugee population- Poster presented at: Australian Society for Infectious Diseases Annual Scientific Meeting: Alice Springs, 2004.
    19. Paxton GA, Sangster KJ, Maxwell EL, McBride CR, Drewe RH. Post-arrival health screening in Karen refugees in Australia. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e38194. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038194. 
    20. Caruana SR et al. Knowledge about hepatitis and previous exposure to hepatitis viruses in immigrants and refugees from the Mekong Region. Aust N Z J Public Health, 2005. 29(1): p. 64-8.
    21. King K, and Vodicka P. Screening for conditions of public health importance in people arriving in Australia by boat without authority. Med J Aust, 2001. 175(11-12): p. 600-2.
    22. Ngo CC, Maidment C, Atkins L, Eagar S, Smith MM. Blood screen findings in a 2-year cohort of newly arrived refugees to Sydney, Australia.Public Health Res Pract. 2018 Mar 15;28(1). pii: 2811804. doi: 10.17061/phrp2811804. 
    23. Jonas, MM et al.Treatment of children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: patient selection and therapeutic options. Hepatology, 2010. 52(6): p. 2192-205.

    Immunisation catch-up

    1. Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI). Australian Immunisation Handbook, Australian Government Department of Health, Canberra, 2018, immunisationhandbook.health.gov.au.
    2. Management, control and prevention of tuberculosis. Guidelines for healthcare providers. Department of Human Services, Victorian Government, Melbourne, Victoria 2002.
    3. Aaby P, Martins C, Bale C, Lisse I. Assessing measles vaccination coverage by maternal recall in Guinea-Bissau. Lancet. 1998 Oct 10;352(9135):1229.
    4. St Sauver JL, Jacobson RM, Vierkant RA, Jacobsen SJ, Green EM, Poland GA. Association of parental vaccination reports with measles, mumps, and rubella protective antibody levels: comparison of Somali immigrant, Hispanic migrant, and US children in Rochester, Minn. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002 Mar;77(3):241-5.
    5. Santiago EM, Lawson E, Gillenwater K, Kalangi S, Lescano AG, Du Quella G, et al. A prospective study of bacillus Calmette-Guerin scar formation and tuberculin skin test reactivity in infants in Lima, Peru. Pediatrics. 2003 Oct;112(4):e298.

    Intestinal parasites

    1. Pickering LK. Ed. Red Book: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases 25th ed. American Academy of Paediatrics; Elk Grove Village, IL: 2000
    2. Hull D. (Chair) Medicines for Children.   Royal College for Paediatrics and Child Health:  RCPCH Publications; 1999.
    3. Taketomo CK HJ, Kraus DM, . Paediatric Dosage Handbook, 6th ed. Lexi Comp Inc. Ohio 1999.
    4. Looke DFM, Robson JMB. 9: Infections in the returned traveller. Med J Aust. 2002 Aug 19;177(4):212-9.

    Mental Health

    1. Bean T, Derluyn I, Eurelings-Bontekoe E, Broekaert E, Spinhoven P. Comparing psychological distress, traumatic stress reactions, and experiences of unaccompanied refugee minors with experiences of adolescents accompanied by parents. J Nerv Ment Dis [Internet]. 2007/04/17 ed. 2007;195(4):288–97. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17435478
    2. Geltman PL, Grant-Knight W, Mehta SD, Lloyd-Travaglini C, Lustig S, Landgraf JM, et al. The “lost boys of Sudan”: functional and behavioral health of unaccompanied refugee minors re-settled in the United States. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med [Internet]. 2005/06/09 ed. 2005;159(6):585–91. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15939860
    3. Thomas S, Nafees B, Bhugra D. “I was running away from death” – the pre-flight experiences of asylum seeking children in the UK. Child Care Health Dev [Internet]. 2004/02/14 ed. 2004;30(2):113–22. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14961864
    4. Sourander A. Behavior problems and traumatic events of unaccompanied refugee minors. Child Abuse Negl [Internet]. 1998/08/07 ed. 1998;22(7):719–27. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9693849
    5. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Questions relating to refugees, returnees and displaced persons and humanitarian questions. Assistance to unaccompanied refugee minors. Report of the Secretary-General [Internet]. Geneva: United Nations General Assembly. 52nd session; Available from: http://www.un.org/documents/ga/docs/52/plenary/a52-273.htm
    6. Robjant K, Hassan R, Katona C. Mental health implications of detaining asylum seekers: systematic review. Br J Psychiatry [Internet]. 2009/04/02 ed. 2009;194(4):306-12. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19336779
    7. The Forgotten Children: National Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention (2014) [Internet]. Sydney: Australian Human Rights Commission; 2014. Available from: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/ forgotten-children-national-inquiry-children-immigration-detention-2014
    8. Mace AO, Mulheron S, Jones C, Cherian S. Educational, developmental and psychological outcomes of resettled refugee children in Western Australia: A review of School of Special Educational Needs: Medical and Mental Health input. J Paediatr Child Health [Internet]. 2014/07/01 ed. 2014; Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/24976219
    9. Dudley M, Steel Z, Mares S, Newman L. Children and young people in immigration detention. Curr Opin Psychiatry [Internet]. 2012/05/10 ed. 2012;25(4):285-92. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22569314
    10. Coffey GJ, Kaplan I, Sampson RC, Tucci MM. The meaning and mental health consequences of long-term immigration detention for people seeking asylum. Soc Sci Med [Internet]. 2010/04/10 ed. 2010;70(12):2070–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20378223
    11. Steel Z, Momartin S, Bateman C, Hafshejani A, Silove DM, Everson N, et al. Psychiatric status of asylum seeker families held for a protracted period in a remote detention centre in Australia. Aust NZ J Public Health [Internet]. 2005/02/15 ed. 2004;28(6):527-36. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15707201
    12. Mares S. Jureidini J. Psychiatric assessment of children and families in immigration detention – clinical, administrative, and ethical issues. Aust NZ J Public Health [Internet]. 2005/02/15 ed. 2004;28(6):520-6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15707200
    13. Paxton GA, Tosif S, Graham H, Smith A, Reveley C, Standish J, et al. Perspective: “The forgotten children: national inquiry into children in immigration detention (2014)”. J Paediatr Child Health [Internet]. 2015 Apr [cited 2016 Feb 13];51(4):365-8. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828177
    14. Correa-Velez I, Gifford SM, Barnett AG. Longing to belong: social inclusion and wellbeing among youth with refugee backgrounds in the first three years in Melbourne, Australia. Soc Sci Med [Internet]. 2010 Oct [cited 2016 Feb 13};71(8):1399-408. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20822841
    15. Rousseau C, Guzder J. School-based prevention programs for refugee children. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am [Internet]. 2008 Jul [cited 2016 Feb 13};17(3):533-49. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18558311
    16. Department of Education and Early Childhood Development Victoria. Strengthening Outcomes; Refugee Students in Government Schools [Internet]. 2008. p. 1-44. Available from: papers2://publication/uuid/2BEBE7A2-BC43-4D1D-B6D5-F88CE8E70D84
    17. Ellis BH, Miller AB, Baldwin H, Abdi S. New Directions in refugee youth mental health services: overcoming barriers to engagement. J Child Adolesc Trauma. 2011;4:69-85.
    18. Sheikh-Mohammed M, MacIntyre CR, Wood NJ, Leask J, Isaacs D. Barriers to access to health care for newly resettled sub-Saharan refugees in Australia. Med J Aust [Internet]. 2006;185(11-12):594–7. Available from: <Go to ISI>://000243388600005
    19. Hadgkiss EJ, Renzaho AM. The physical health status, service utilization and barriers to accessing care for asylum seekers residing in the community; a systematic review of the literature. Aust Heal Rev [Internet]. 2014/04/01 ed. 2014;38(2):142-59. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679338
    20. Spike EA, Smith MM, Harris MF. Access to primary health care services by community-based asylum seekers. Med J Aust [Internet]. 2011 Aug 15 [cited 2015 Aug 31];195(4):188-91. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21843121
    21. Colucci E, Szwarc J, Minas H, Paxton G, Guerra C. The utilisation of mental health services by children and young people from a refugee background: a systematic literature review. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health. 2012;DOI:10.1080/17542863.2012.713371.
    22. Colucci E, Minas H, Szwarc J, Guerra C, Paxton G. In or out? Barriers and facilitators to refugee-background young people accessing mental health services. Transcult Psychiatry. 2015.
    23. Paxton GA, Smith N, Win AK, Mulholland N, Hood S. Refugee status report. A report on how refugee children and young people in Victoria are faring. 2011. Melbourne: Victorian Government, Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. Available from: http://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/about/research/refugeestatusreport.pdf
    24. Ziaian T, de Anstiss H, Antoniou G, Sawyer M, Baghurst P. Depressive symptomatology and service utilisation among refugee children and adolescents living in South Australia. Child Adolesc Ment Healt. 2011;17(3): 146-52.
    25. Ziaian T, de Anstiss H, Antoniou G, Baghurst P, Sawyer M. Emotional and behavioural problems among refugee children and adolescents living in South Australia. Aust Psychol. 19 Oct 2011:1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.111/j.1742-9544.2011.0.
    26. Osofsky, JD. The effect of exposure to violence on young children. American Psychologist [Internet]. 1995 Sep [cited 2017 May 15]; 50(9):782-88. Available from: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1996-10839-001
    27. Lustig SL, Kia-Keating M, Knight WG, Geltman P, Ellis H, Kinzie JD, et al. Review of child and adolescent refugee mental health. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry [Internet]. 2004 Jan [cited 2015 Sep 2];43(1):24–36. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14691358
    28. Wetzel RD. Hopelessness, depression, and suicide intent. Arch Gen Psychiatry [Internet]. 1976 Sep [cited 2016 Feb 17];33(9):1069-73. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/962491
    29. Colucci E, Too LS. Culture, Cultural Meanings, and Suicide Among People From Migrant and Refugee Backgrounds. In: D. van Bergen, A. Heredia Montesinos MS-O, editor. Suicidal Behaviour of Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities in Europe [Internet]. Hogrefe; 2015. P. 115-36. Available from: http://www.hogrefe.com/program/suicidal-behavior-of-immigrants-and-ethnic-minorities-in-europe.html?catId=121
    30. Joshi P, Warfa N. Suicide and self-harm among refugees and asylum seekers. In: van Bergen D, Montesinos A, Schoulder-Ocak M, editors. Suicidal behavior of immigrants and ethnic minorities in Europe. Hogrefe; 2015. p. 91-100.

    Malaria

    1. Davis J, Webber M. A prospective audit of infectious diseases in 222 newly arrived African refugees. RACP Annual Scientific Meeting. Cairns, 2006.
    2. Tiong ACD, Patel MS, Gardiner J, Ryan R, Linton KS, Walker KA, et al. Health issues in newly arrived African refugees attending general practice clinics in Melbourne. Med J Aust. 2006 Dec 4-18;185(11-12):602-6.
    3. Martin JA, Mak DB. Changing faces: A review of infectious disease screening of refugees by the Migrant Health Unit, Western Australia in 2003 and 2004. Med J Aust. 2006 Dec 4-18;185(11-12):607-10.
    4. Humanitarian Business Process Section Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Health screening protocols for refugee and special humanitarian program entrants to Australia from East and West Africa. Department of Immigration and Citizenship, Australian Government, Canberra, 2006
    5. Severe falciparum malaria. World Health Organization, Communicable Diseases Cluster. Trans Royal Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Apr;94 Suppl 1:S1-90.
    6. Griffith K, Lewis L, Mali S, Parise M. Treatment of malaria in the United States. A systematic review. JAMA. 2007;297(20):2264-77.
    7. Cherian S, Burgner D. Selective ambulatory management of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in paediatric refugees. Arch Dis Child June 2007. Available online:http://adc.bmj.com/cgi/rapidpdf/adc.2006.114801v1 

    Schistosomiasis

    1. Grenfell, R.F., et al., Immunodiagnostic methods: what is their role in areas of low endemicity? ScientificWorldJournal, 2012. 2012: p. 593947.
    2. Chitsulo, L., P. Loverde, and D. Engels, Schistosomiasis. Nat Rev Microbiol, 2004. 2(1): p. 12-3.
    3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health Information for International Travel 2014: The Yellow Book. 2013 [cited 2013 7 November]; Available from: ttp://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/schistosomiasis.
    4. Gibney, K.B., et al., The profile of health problems in African immigrants attending an infectious disease unit in Melbourne, Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2009. 80(5): p. 805-11.
    5. Murray, R.J., et al., The Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases guidelines for the diagnosis, management and prevention of infections in recently arrived refugees: an abridged outline. Med J Aust, 2009. 190(8): p. 421-5.
    6. Paxton, G.A., Sangster, K.J., Maxwell, E.L., McBride, C.R., Drewe, R.H. Post-arrival health screening in Karen refugees in Australia. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e38194. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038194. Epub 2012 May 31.
    7. Sheikh, M., et al., The epidemiology of health conditions of newly arrived refugee children: a review of patients attending a specialist health clinic in Sydney. J Paediatr Child Health, 2009. 45(9): p. 509-13.
    8. Cheever, A.W., Schistosomiasis. Infection versus disease and hypersensitivity versus immunity. Am J Pathol, 1993. 142(3): p. 699-702.
    9. Vennervald and Dunne, Morbidity in schistosomiasis: an update, Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases: October 2004. 17(5): p 439-447
    10. Danso-Appiah, A., et al., Drugs for treating Schistosoma mansoni infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2013. 2: p. CD000528.
    11. King, C.H., et al., Utility of repeated praziquantel dosing in the treatment of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities in Africa: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2011. 5(9): p. e1321.
    12. Yong, M.K., et al., Long-term follow-up of schistosomiasis serology post-treatment in Australian travelers and immigrants. J Travel Med, 2010. 17(2): p. 89-93.
    13. Bligh, J., et al., Serological analysis of the outcome of treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infections with praziquantel. Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2010. 104(6): p. 511-20.
    14. Volkman T, Clifford V and Paxton GA, Schistosoma serology after praziquantel treatment of Schistosoma infection in refugee children resettled in Australia: A retrospective analysis. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
      Available online 21 April 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101680.

    STI screening

    1. Murray, R.J., et al., The Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases guidelines for the diagnosis, management and prevention of infections in recently arrived refugees: an abridged outline. Med J Aust, 2009. 190(8): p. 421-5.
    2. Hoad, V.C. and A. Thambiran, Evaluating the chlamydia and gonorrhoea screening program in the Humanitarian Entrant Health Service, Western Australia. Med J Aust, 2012. 197(1): p. 47-9.
    3. Paxton, G.A., et al., Post-arrival health screening in Karen refugees in australia. PloS one, 2012. 7(5): p. e38194.
    4. Martin, J.A. and D.B. Mak, Changing faces: A review of infectious disease screening of refugees by the Migrant Health Unit, Western Australia in 2003 and 2004. Med J Aust, 2006. 185(11-12): p. 607-10.
    5. Johnson, D., Rates of infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies in newly arrived African refugees, 2007. 44 p., Government of South Australia: Central Northern Adelaide Health Service. p. 44 p.
    6. Johnston, V., L. Smith, and H. Roydhouse, The health of newly arrived refugees to the Top End of Australia: results of a clinical audit at the Darwin Refugee Health Service. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 2011; http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/PY11065.
    7. Tiong, A.C.D., Patel, M.S., Gardiner, J. et al., Health issues in newly arrived African refugees attending general practice clinics in Melbourne. Medical Journal of Australia, 2006. 185(11/12): p. 602-606.
    8. Sheikh, M., et al., The epidemiology of health conditions of newly arrived refugee children: a review of patients attending a specialist health clinic in Sydney. J Paediatr Child Health, 2009. 45(9): p. 509-13.
    9. Evans, M., Health issues in patients attending Queensland Refugee Health Clinic - personal communication., 2012: Brisbane, .
    10. Thomas, S., et al., 'I was running away from death'- the pre-flight experiences of unaccompanied asylum seeking children in the UK. Child Care Health Dev, 2004. 30(2): p. 113-22.
    11. Lay, M. and I. Papadopoulos, Sexual maltreatment of unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors from the Horn of Africa: a mixed method study focusing on vulnerability and prevention. Child Abuse Negl, 2009. 33(10): p. 728-38.
    12. Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Instructions for medical and radiological examination of Australian visa applicants. 2009 27 December 2011]; Available from: http://www.immi.gov.au/gateways/panel_doctors/conducting_medicals/instructions/.
    13. Murray, R.J., et al., The Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases guidelines for the diagnosis, management and prevention of infections in recently arrived refugees: an abridged outline. Med J Aust, 2009. 190(8): p. 421-5.

    Strongyloidiasis

    1. Khieu V et al., Diagnosis, treatment and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in schoolchildren in Cambodia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2013. 7(2): p. e2035.
    2. Chaves NJ, Paxton GA, Biggs BA, et al. Recommendations for comprehensive post-arrival health assessment for people from refugee-like backgrounds. 2nd edition Sydney: Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases and Refugee Health Network of Australia; 2016 [Available from: http://www.asid.net.au/documents/item/1225 accessed 6 June 2020].
    3. Montes M, Sawhney C and Barros N. Strongyloides stercoralis: there but not seen. Curr Opin Infect Dis, 2010. 23(5): p. 500-4.
    4. Fisher D, McCarry F, and Currie B. Strongyloidiasis in the Northern Territory. Under-recognised and under-treated? Med J Aust, 1993. 159(2): p. 88-90.
    5. Einsiedel L, et al. Non-communicable diseases, infection and survival in a retrospective cohort of Indigenous and non-Indigenous adults in central Australia. BMJ Open, 2013. 3(7).
    6. Paxton GA, et al. Post-arrival health screening in Karen refugees in Australia. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e38194. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038194. Epub 2012 May 31.
    7. Gibney KB, et al, The profile of health problems in African immigrants attending an infectious disease unit in Melbourne, Australia. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2009. 80(5): p. 805-11.
    8. Caruana SR, et al. Undiagnosed and potentially lethal parasite infections among immigrants and refugees in Australia. J Travel Med, 2006. 13(4): p. 233-9.
    9. Requena-Mendez A, et al. The laboratory diagnosis and follow up of strongyloidiasis: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2013. 7(1): p. e2002.
    10. Buonfrate D, et al. Accuracy of molecular biology techniques for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection - A systematic review and meta-analysis. Plos Negl Trop Dis, 2018. Feb 9, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006229.
    11. Wilkins et al, ​Archimedes: Question 1: Is it safe to use ivermectin in children less than five years of age and weighing less than 15 kg?, Arch Dis Child. 2018 May;103(5):514-519.
    12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Strongyloidiasis. 2020 [accessed 6 June 2020]; Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/strongyloides/
    13. Biggs, B.A., et al., Management of chronic strongyloidiasis in immigrants and refugees: is serologic testing useful? Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2009. 80(5): p. 788-91.

    Syphilis

    1. Hawkes, S.J., G.B. Gomez, and N. Broutet, Early antenatal care: does it make a difference to outcomes of pregnancy associated with syphilis? A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 2013. 8(2): p. e56713.
    2. Chakraborty, R. and S. Luck, Syphilis is on the increase: the implications for child health. Arch Dis Child, 2008. 93(2): p. 105-9.
    3. Ortiz-Lopez, N., et al., Epidemiological surveillance of congenital syphilis in Spain, 2000-2010. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 2012. 31(9): p. 988-90.
    4. Kwan, K.S., et al., Syphilis epidemiology and public health interventions in Western Australia from 1991 to 2009. Sex Health, 2012. 9(3): p. 272-9.
    5. Martin, J.A. and D.B. Mak, Changing faces: A review of infectious disease screening of refugees by the Migrant Health Unit, Western Australia in 2003 and 2004. Med J Aust, 2006. 185(11-12): p. 607-10.
    6. MacPherson, D.W. and B.D. Gushulak, Syphilis in immigrants and the Canadian immigration medical examination. J Immigr Minor Health, 2008. 10(1): p. 1-6.
    7. Paxton, G.A., et al., Post-arrival health screening in Karen refugees in Australia. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e38194. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038194. Epub 2012 May 31.
    8. Hook, E.W., 3rd and R.W. Peeling, Syphilis control--a continuing challenge. N Engl J Med, 2004. 351(2): p. 122-4.
    9. Antibiotic Expert Group, ed. Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic. 14 ed. 2010, Therapeutic Guidelines Limited: Melbourne.
    10. Herremans, T., L. Kortbeek, and D.W. Notermans, A review of diagnostic tests for congenital syphilis in newborns. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2010. 29(5): p. 495-501.
    11. Centers for Disease Control. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines 2010. 2010 [cited 2013 19th June]; Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2010/genital-ulcers.htm#congenital.

    Tuberculosis screening

    1. Department of Health and Human Services. Management, control and prevention of tuberculosis. Guidelines for healthcare providers. Melbourne: Department of Health and Human Services, Victorian Government, Department of Human Services; 2016. 88 p.
    2. Cruz and Starke, Clinical manifestations of tuberculosis in children, Paediatr Respir Rev 2007 Jun;8(2):107-17
    3. Department of Home Affairs. Health: What health examinations you need. Canberra, Department of Home Affairs, Australian Government, 2020. (Accessed 30 June 2020, at https://immi.homeaffairs.gov.au/help-support/meeting-our-requirements/health/what-health-examinations-you-need)
    4. Sheikh M, Pal A, Wang S, et al. The epidemiology of health conditions of newly arrived refugee children: a review of patients attending a specialist health clinic in Sydney. J Paediatr Child Health 2009;45:509-13.
    5. Gray K, Wood N, Gunasekera H, et al. Vitamin D and Tuberculosis Status in Refugee Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011.
    6. Martin JA, Mak DB. Changing faces: A review of infectious disease screening of refugees by the Migrant Health Unit, Western Australia in 2003 and 2004. Med J Aust 2006;185:607-10.
    7. Lucas M, Nicholl., McKinnon, E., Whidboren, R., Lucas, A., Thambiran, A., Burgner, D., Waring, J. and French, M. A prospective large-scale study of methods for the detection of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in refugee children. Thorax 2010;65:442-8.
    8. Heenan et al, ‘I think we’ve had a health screen’: New offshore screening, new refugee health guidelines, new Syrian and Iraqi cohorts: Recommendations, reality, results and review​, JPCH, 55 (2019) 95–103
    9. McMaster P, Isaacs D. Critical review of evidence for short course therapy for tuberculous adenitis in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000 May;19(5):401-4.
    10. Swingler GH, du Toit G, Andronikou S, van der Merwe L, Zar HJ. Diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography in detecting mediastinal lymphadenopathy in suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Nov;90(11):1153-6.
    11. Smieja MJ, Marchetti CA, Cook DJ, Smaill FM. Isoniazid for preventing tuberculosis in non-HIV infected persons. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000(2):CD001363.
    12. Bannon MJ. BCG and tuberculosis. Arch Dis Child. 1999 Jan;80(1):80-3.
    13. Colditz GA, Brewer TF, Berkey CS, Wilson ME, Burdick E, Fineberg HV, et al. Efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis. Meta-analysis of the published literature. JAMA. 1994 Mar 2 ;271(9):698-702.
    14. Santiago EM, Lawson E, Gillenwater K, Kalangi S, Lescano AG, Du Quella G, et al. A prospective study of bacillus Calmette-Guerin scar formation and tuberculin skin test reactivity in infants in Lima, Peru. Pediatrics. 2003 Oct;112(4):e298.
    15. Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI). Tuberculosis. Australian Immunisation Handbook, Australian Government Department of Health, Canberra, 2018, immunisationhandbook.health.gov.au. 

    Vitamin A

    1. Huiming Y, Chaomin W, Meng M. Vitamin A for treating measles in children.[update of Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(1):CD001479; PMID: 11869601].
    2. 2. Glasziou PP, Mackerras DE. Vitamin A supplementation in infectious diseases: a meta-analysis. Bmj. 1993 Feb 6;306(6874):366-70.
    3. Humphrey JH, Agoestina T, Wu L, Usman A, Nurachim M, Subardja D, et al. Impact of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on infant morbidity and mortality. J Pediatr. 1996 Apr;128(4):489-96.
    4. Rahmathullah L, Tielsch JM, Thulasiraj RD, Katz J, Coles C, Devi S, et al. Impact of supplementing newborn infants with vitamin A on early infant mortality: community based randomised trial in southern India. Bmj. 2003 Aug 2;327(7409):254.
    5. Ross DA, Kirkwood BR, Binka FN, Arthur P, Dollimore N, Morris SS, et al. Child morbidity and mortality following vitamin A supplementation in Ghana: time since dosing, number of doses, and time of year. Am J Public Health. 1995 Sep;85(9):1246-51.
    6. Ross DA. Recommendations for vitamin A supplementation. J Nutr. 2002 Sep;132(9 Suppl):2902S-6S.
    7. World Health Organization. Vitamin A supplements. A guide to their use in the treatment and prevention of Vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia. Geneva; 1997.
    8. McGillivray G, Skull SA, Davie G, et al. High prevalence of asymptomatic vitamin D and iron deficiency in East African immigrant children and adolescents living in a temperate climate. Archives of disease in childhood 2007;92:1088-93.
    9. Buttery J, Chionh C. Royal Children's Hospital Immigrant Health Clinic 2005. Report to Department of Human Services.
      Melbourne; Royal Children's Hospital; 2005.
    10. Paxton GA, Sangster KJ, Maxwell EL, McBride CRJ, Drewe RH. Post arrival health screening in Karen refugees in Australia. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e38194. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038194. Epub 2012 May 31.
    11. National Health and Medical Research Council. Nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand. Including recommended daily intakes. 2005. Available at: www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications/synopses/n35syn.htm.  Accessed January 2012
    12. Randomised trial to assess benefits and safety of vitamin A supplementation linked to immunisation in early infancy. WHO/CHD Immunisation-Linked Vitamin A Supplementation Study Group.[erratum appears in Lancet 1999 Jan 9;353(9147):154]. Lancet. 1998 Oct 17;352(9136):1257-63.
    13. Paediatric pharmacopoeia. Eds: Kemp CA, McDowell JM, Bogovic A et al; Royal Children's Hospital, Pharmacy Department. 2003.

    Vitamin D

    1. Holick MF. Vitamin D: A millenium perspective. J Cell Biochem 2003;88:296-307.
    2. Springbett P, Buglass S, Young AR. Photoprotection and vitamin D status. J Photochem Photobiol B;101:160-8.
    3. Nowson CA, Margerison C. Vitamin D intake and vitamin D status of Australians. Med J Aust 2002;177:149-52.
    4. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. In: Ross CA, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, Del Valle HB, eds. Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D, Food and Nutrition Board. Washington: Institute of Medicine, National Academies Press; 2010:999p.
    5. Roth DE. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: safety considerations in the design and interpretation of clinical trials. J Perinatol 2011;31:449-59.
    6. Johnson D. Rates of infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies in newly arrived African refugees. Central Northern Adelaide Health Service: Government of South Australia; 2007. 44 p.
    7. McGillivray G, Skull SA, Davie G, et al. High prevalence of asymptomatic vitamin D and iron deficiency in East African immigrant children and adolescents living in a temperate climate. Archives of disease in childhood 2007;92:1088-93.
    8. Skull SA, Ngeow JY, Biggs BA, Street A, Ebeling PR. Vitamin D deficiency is common and unrecognized among recently arrived adult immigrants from The Horn of Africa. Internal medicine journal 2003;33:47-51.
    9. Benitez-Aguirre PZ, Wood NJ, Biesheuvel C, Moreira C, Munns CF. The natural history of vitamin D deficiency in African refugees living in Sydney. Med J Aust 2009;190:426-8.
    10. Gray K, Wood N, Gunasekera H, et al. Vitamin D and Tuberculosis Status in Refugee Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011.
    11. Sheikh M, Pal A, Wang S, et al. The epidemiology of health conditions of newly arrived refugee children: a review of patients attending a specialist health clinic in Sydney. J Paediatr Child Health 2009;45:509-13.
    12. Horton-French K, Dunlop E, Lucas RM, Pereira G, and Black LJ. Prevalence and Predictors of Vitamin D Deficiency among African Immigrants Living in Australia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Aug; 16(16): 2855.
    13. Nozza JM, Rodda CP. Vitamin D deficiency in mothers of infants with rickets. Med J Aust 2001;175:253-5.
    14. Robinson PD, Hogler W, Craig ME, et al. The re-emerging burden of rickets: a decade of experience from Sydney. Archives of disease in childhood 2006;91:564-8.
    15. Paxton GA, Sangster KJ, Maxwell EL, McBride CRJ, Drewe RH. Post arrival health screening in Karen refugees in Australia. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e38194. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038194. Epub 2012 May 31.

    Immigrant health clinic resources. Updated June 2020 Contact georgia.paxton@rch.org.au