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Proximal humeral fractures - Fracture clinics
Most proximal humeral fractures do not require reduction as remodelling is extremely effective in the proximal humerus.
The usual treatment for this fracture is immobilisation of the shoulder in a sling, body swathe or shoulder immobiliser.
Patients should be seen in the fracture clinic or by an interested GP within 7 days for follow-up with x-rays to assess further displacement.
Proximal humeral fractures can be classified according to its location:
Proximal humeral fractures represent
<5% of all paediatric fractures. These fractures may occur either through the physis (growth plate) or in the metaphysis. They are usually the result of a fall on an outstretched hand, with the humeral head locked against the glenoid and the force transmitted to the physeal or metaphyseal region.
Physeal injuries are more common in late childhood and adolescence, while metaphyseal injuries, including buckle injuries are more common in younger children.
Occasionally a fracture can occur through a benign bone cyst in childhood. This would be regarded as a pathological fracture. Lower energy trauma is required to sustain this type of fracture, than in a normal bone.
Proximal humeral fractures as a result of non-accidental injury are not common, and do not have the same association as humeral shaft fractures in this regard.
Infantile proximal injuries are usually transphyseal separation incurred during the birth process. These may not be seen on x-ray as the proximal humeral epiphysis appears at about six months of age. Ultrasound may be needed in this setting.
The child will present after a defined injury with pain and loss of movement around the shoulder. There may be swelling and deformity, but with the coverage of the fracture by the shoulder muscles, this may not be obvious. The primary clinical sign is reluctance to move the shoulder and pain.
Anteroposterior (AP) and axillary lateral radiographs of the shoulder should be obtained. An axillary lateral view will give a lateral projection and show the relationship of the humeral head with the glenoid fossa.
The appearance will depend on the degree of angulation and/or displacement of the shaft relative to the humeral head. Attention should be drawn to growth plate involvement.
Buckle injuries may appear as a simple bump usually on the medial cortical margin of the metaphysis.
Proximal humeral fractures should be described in relation to:
Figure 1 : AP and lateral x-ray of 10 year old girl with Salter-Harris type II fracture of the proximal humerus.
The proximal physis contributes 80% of the length of the humerus. Due to the enormous remodelling potential, most of these injuries do not require reduction. There is no role for attempted reduction in the ED.
The older child with greater deformity may be treated with closed reduction. This is controversial and there are no agreed figures to guide closed operative reduction.
Approximate indications are:
Isolated greater tuberosity fractures with displacement in the adolescent are an exception group in which surgical reduction and fixation is usually required.
Indications for prompt referral to the orthopaedic on call service include:
The usual treatment for this fracture is immobilisation of the shoulder in a sling, body swathe or shoulder immobiliser. Analgesia and thorough neurovascular assessment are essential.
Patients should be seen in the fracture clinic or by an interested GP within seven days for follow-up with radiographs to assess further displacement.
Due to the remodelling potential of this region, the outcome from this fracture is usually excellent. Nonunion is rare and shoulder function usually returns to normal even if there is residual deformity on xray. Mild shortening of the humerus and mild angular malunion are not noticeable cosmetically, and function is unaffected.
Physeal injuries in adolescents are typically Salter-Harris type I and II with very low subsequent growth arrest rates.
Complications are rare and usually due to associated soft tissue and neurological injuries, i.e. brachial plexus.
Mild malunion can occur but is not a functional problem.
Nonunion is rare.
fracture clinics for other potential complications
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