Resuscitation - Appendices

  • Signs of respiratory inadequacy

    • Tachypnoea
    • Increased work of breathing (intercostal, subcostal or suprasternal recession; use of accessory muscles)
    • Respiratory noises (wheeze, stridor, grunting)
    • Desaturation (SpO2 <92%)
    • Reduced chest expansion
    • Reduced air entry
    • Cyanosis
    • Secondary signs: tachy or bradycardia, colour change - pale or blue, cool peripheries, altered mental state

    Signs of circulatory inadequacy   

    • Tachycardia, bradycardia
    • Hypotension (hypotension is a late and preterminal sign)
    • Delayed capillary refill
    • Reduced pulse volume
    • Secondary signs - tachypnoea (especially if no increased work of breathing) or bradypnoea; altered conscious state; colour change - Pallor or cyanosis

    Airway Sizing

    Resus - airway sizing
    • Sizing: from centre of mouth to angle of the jaw
    • Insert in the position it will lie in (concave side down and do not rotate)
    • Insert under direct vision with tongue depression

    Airway opening manoeuvres

    Head tilt, chin lift

    Resus - airway opening pic1Resus - airway opening pic2
    Jaw thrust