Kids Health Info

Acne

  • Acne is a common skin condition/problem that usually affects teenagers.  However, adults in their 20s and even into their 40s can develop acne.

    Acne consists of blackheads, whiteheads, pimples and, sometimes, deeper boil-like lesions called nodules. It is most common on the face but can also occur on the back, chest, shoulders and neck.

    Acne usually clears up after several years, but for some people it can last a lot longer. Depending on how severe the acne is, special treatment with creams or medication may be needed to get rid of it.

    Untreated acne can leave lifelong scars that can be upsetting and affect a person's confidence and self-image.

    Causes

    During puberty, both males and females have higher levels of a male hormone called testosterone in their blood. Testosterone triggers the acne by causing the sebaceous (oil) glands - which are connected to hair follicles on your face, neck, chest and back - to produce a lot of oil.

    This extra oil causes the pores on your skin to become blocked. Bacteria can grow in this trapped oil in the glands. These bacteria produce chemicals that can cause the wall of the follicle to break. When the wall is broken, sebum (oil), bacteria and shed skin cells escape from the pores. This is how pimples and large bumps are formed.

    Acne is not a disease caused by dirt.  Acne is not generally caused by the foods you eat.

    Treatment

    If acne is to be controlled successfully, the treatment needs to be an ongoing process. The treatment your doctor will recommend will vary according to your type of acne.

    • First your doctor must find out if your skin condition is routine acne. Occasionally, an acne-like rash can be due to another cause, such as makeup or lotions you've used or oral medication. It's important to help your doctor by providing them with a history of what you are using on your skin and what medicines you are taking.
    • Many non-prescription acne lotions and creams can help mild acne. However, many of them will make your skin dry if used too often. If you use these products, follow the instructions carefully.
    • When buying makeup, make sure it's "non-comedogenic" or " non-acnegenic ".
    • Non-comedogenic means that using the cosmetic should not result in whiteheads and blackheads.
    • Make-up should be taken off every night with soap and water.

    Medical treatment

    • Your doctor may open pimples or remove blackheads and whiteheads. Don't pick, scratch, pop or squeeze your pimples yourself. When the pimples are squeezed, more redness, swelling, inflammation and scarring may result.
    • Your doctor may prescribe creams or lotions that are applied to the skin to help unblock the pores and reduce the bacteria. These may make the skin dry and peel. Your doctor will advise you on how to use the medicine and about any side effects.
    • Antibiotics by mouth are often given for moderate or severe acne, especially when there is a lot of acne on the back or chest. The antibiotics are used to reduce the bacteria in the hair follicle.
    • There are also antibiotic creams or lotions that can be put on the skin. These are used for more mild acne.
    • When large red bumps are present, the doctor may inject medication directly into the bumps.
    • In cases of severe acne, other drugs taken by mouth may be used. These may include:
      • Female-type hormones and other medications that decrease the male-type hormones.
      • Isotretinoin (Roaccutane), is sometimes used to treat severe acne that has not responded to other treatment. Patients using Roaccutane must fully understand the side effects of the medicine. Frequent follow-up visits with a dermatologist are needed to monitor its side effects. You must not get pregnant while on this medicine. It can cause severe birth defects if taken during pregnancy.

    Care at home

    Hygiene

    Acne is not a disease caused by dirt. The blackness of a blackhead is not dirt, but is due mostly to dried oil and shed skin cells in the openings of the hair follicles. For the normal care of your skin, you should wash your face with soap and warm water twice a day. It's important not to wash too often as this may actually aggravate your acne. Regular shampooing of your hair is also recommended. If your hair is oily, you may want to wash it more often.

    Your doctor will advise you on the best face and hair washing routine.

    Shaving

    Males with acne who shave should try both an electric and a safety razor to see which is more comfortable. If you use a safety razor, soften your beard thoroughly with soap and warm water. To avoid nicking pimples, shave as lightly as possible. Shave only when needed and always use a sharp blade.

    Diet

    Acne is not generally caused by the foods you eat. Doctors have different opinions on the importance of diets in the management of acne. One thing is certain - following a strict diet will not clear your skin by itself. On the other hand, a few people find their acne seems to become worse when they eat certain foods. If that's the case, foods that worsen your acne should be avoided.

    Sunlight

    Acne may improve after you've been out in the sun, but sunlight only helps for the short term. In the long run, sunlight may actually worsen acne. Too much sun over many years could cause early aging of the skin and skin cancer.

    Proper care is necessary

    No matter what special treatments your doctor may use, remember that you must continue proper skin care until the tendency to have acne has passed. There is no instant or permanent cure for acne, but it is controllable and proper treatment may prevent permanent scars.

    Key points to remember

    • Untreated acne can leave life long scars that can affect self image.
    • Do not pick, scratch, pop or squeeze your pimples yourself.
    • You should wash your face with soap and warm water twice a day.

     

    Developed by the RCH Departments of Dermatology and General Medicine. First published 2003. Updated February 2013.


Disclaimer 
This information is intended to support, not replace, discussion with your doctor or healthcare professionals. The authors of these consumer health information handouts have made a considerable effort to ensure the information is accurate, up to date and easy to understand. The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne accepts no responsibility for any inaccuracies, information perceived as misleading, or the success of any treatment regimen detailed in these handouts. Information contained in the handouts is updated regularly and therefore you should always check you are referring to the most recent version of the handout. The onus is on you, the user, to ensure that you have downloaded the most up-to-date version of a consumer health information handout.